Nuclear physics OVERVIEW -SHUBHAM SHAH
My introduction My name is Shubham Shah I am currently pursuing my Btech in information technology
Course content Introduction to nuclear physics Nuclear radii and charge distributions Nuclear binding energy Electric and magnetic moments Nuclear models Nuclear force and two nucleon problem
Alpha decay, beta-decay Electromagnetic transitions in nuclei Rutherford scattering Fission and fusion Particle accelerators and detectors
Introduction to nuclear Physics: Nuclear physics begin when the Henri Becquerel observed that photographic plates were being fogged by an unknown radiation emanating from uranium ores. At that point the radioactivity originated. The scientists further discovered on this topic and found these were named (by Rutherford) a-, -B and y-rays. We know now that alpha rays are bound states of two protons and two neutrons Beta rays are electrons and Gamma rays are photons.
Discovery of neutrons At about the same time, the concept of isotopism (a name coined by Soddy) was conceived. Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have different masses, but the same charge. And after performing certain experiments Chadwick found the neutral particle existing in atom called neutron. Whose mass is almost similar to the protons,which resides in the nucleus.
Discovery of electron J. J. Thomson constructed a glass tube which was partially evacuated ie, much of the air was pumped out of the tube. Then he applied a high electrical voltage between two electrodes at either end of the tube. He detected that a stream of particle (ray) was coming out from the negatively charged electrode (cathode) to positively charged electrode (anode). This ray is called cathode ray and the whole construction is called cathode ray tube To vacuum pump cathode anode High voltage
Properties of cathode ray particle 1. They travel in straight lines 2. They are independent of the material composition of the cathode. 3. Applying electric field in the path of cathode ray deflects the ray towards positively charged plate. Hence cathode ray consists of negatively charged particles Based on this he calculated the charge by mass ratio. e/m--1.76x108em--1.76x108 coulomb per gram
By Millikan's oil drop experiment we get to know the charge and the mass of electron. e--1.60x10-19e--1.60x10-19 Coulomb, m-9.1x10-28m-9.1x10-28 gram
Discovery of proton: Gold Foil Experiment In his gold foil experiment, Rutherford bombarded a beam of alpha particles on an ultrathin gold foil and then detected the scattered alpha particles in zinc sulphide (ZnS) screen. Detection sc Gold foil t a smatt angle Particle deftected at a large angle Bearn of particles
I am currently pursuing my Btech in information technology from Dharmsinh Desai university.