Pranav Pundarik is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
The Basics Of Human Defence System (Introduction) -A MUST DO TOPIC FOR NEET AND AIIMS--
Hey there, Its always great and fruitful to do an early start. I am one of you. A student who did pretty well in pre medicals but didn't went there just because l got something that stood by my interests. I am at present a student of Bio-Medical Engineering at NIT Rourkela. It would be great to help out you guys to achieve your goal. We will stick to the point and let you know what is required for your efficient performance. We will enjoy biology. Its my favorite part, so lets enjoy together. blelogy it my tovorte port,so lef Oh! Well, my name is Pranav Lets begin with one of my very favorite topic , 'The Human Defence System'.
Why to have a defense system? I think you all are clear about it. Obviously to stay protected from unwanted pathogens that may cause harm to our delicate system. What kind of defense system do we have We are having a full army for our self defense with each member of it assigned its task. * Immunity: To define it, we can say it as the 'ability' of an organism to defend itself from the hostile environment containing lots of foes. Who are these foes? You are already aware of that. The viruses, bacteria's, protozoon's, helminths etc.
The Lines of defense The first line of defense : It includes y ur skin and the mucus coat. The second line of defense : It includes Neutrophils, Monocytes, Macrophages, Interferons etc. The third line of defense : It includes the specific immunity by T & B lymphocytes. (The names used will be explained in upcoming slides, just have a rough idea now)
The typical response of the body whenever there is an attack of any pathogen on the body or there is an external cut or wound, then the body responds in the following pathway: Rubor : The redness that you see . It is due to vasodilation. Calor : The heat generated around that attack portion. Its due to fast metabolic rate there. Tumor : The swelling up. Due to increased permeability of blood vessels there. Dolor The pain that you feel. Due to injury in neurons, chemicals as prostaglandins are released that give the sensation of pain.
The cause of response: The Human Immune System Immunity that you have is of two types: Acquired Immunity Innate Immunity Acquired immunity is the immunity that you acquire (Get) in the due course of your life as you encounter different kinda pathogens. Its like the more you are exposed to environmental pathogens, the more strong becomes your immune memory. Its 'Encounter memory based defense'
Innate Immunity It's the immune power that you inherit from your parents. It includes four types of barrier: Physical Barrier (Like your skin, eyelash, body hair etc.) Physiological Barrier (As Acid in stomach & saliva in your mouth) Cellular Barrier (As macrophages & monocytes) . . Cytokine Barriers (As Interferons)
Active and Passive Immunity Active Immunity : When antibodies produced in body in response to (introduced ) pathogens. SLOW RESPONSE. Better for us since creates memory cells for every antibody produced Passive Immunity : When ready made antibodies inserted in the body like colostrum FAST RESPONSE.
Vaccination It's the process in which 'Weakened Pathogens' or 'Killed Pathogens' are introduced in the body. potinoodtinstored in Memory Cells o For each entered pathogen, our body gives a strong immune response and the way it responded is stored in Memory Cells of the Immune system
Allergy It's the "Exaggerated Response of the Immune system". Its due to antigens in the environment to which our body response very harshly. Histamine and Serotonin are released from mast cells which exaggerate the response IgE (Immuno Globulin E *) is involved in the response. *Will be discussed in upcoming lessons