Binay Roy NPTEL Certified Student Winner at Various Robotics Competitions Complete Knowledge of AutoCAD and SolidWorks 8.5 Pointer PO coordipator ternshala Student Partner ubotios Marketing Intern aineed at Jindal Saw Ltd. https://unacademy.com/user/iambinayroy
Introduction to Electricity
Cha rge .Symbol: (q) .Unit: Coulomb (C) -Charge in an electron: The fundamental electric quantity is charge. e-1.602x10-19C -Atoms/are composed of charge carrying particles: electrons and prot ns, and neutral particles, neutron:s -Charge in a proton: p 1.602x10-19C he smallest amount of charge at exists is carried by an electron dnd a proton.
Current Symbol: I Unit: Ampere -Current moves through a circuit element "through Essentially, flow of electrons in an electric circuit leads to the establishment of current. variable." dq dt -Cyfrent is rate of flow of gatively-charged particles, alled electrons, through a predetermined cross-sectional I(t) = o q : relatively charged electrons area in a conductor o Amp C/sec o Often measured in milliamps, -Like water flow. mA
Curre nt-Water Analogy More current Less current More urrent
oltage Symbol: V Unit: Volt Potential difference across two terminals in a circuitterminal "across variable." Let A be the lower potential/voltage Let B be the higher potential/voltage o Then, voltage across A and B is the terminal In order to move charge from point A to point B, work eeds to be done. cost in energy required to move a unit Like potential energy at a water fall positive charge from A to B.
Volta ge-Water Analogy
Voltage/Curre nt-Water Ana logy Electrical System Water System Voltage PSI Pressure 1.5V Dim 0.3 m 15 V Current 1.5V 15.9 1b 3.0 v 7.1 lb/ 1.5V 4.5 V .5V Water Lamp Bright 6.0 V Current
Series Connection of Cells 15Y one cell two cells in series three cells in series Fac cell provides 1.5V cellsconnected one after another, in se ries, provide V, while three cellswould provide 4.5 V Pol arities m atter
Pa ra llel Connection of Cells 15Y If the cells are connected in parallel, the voltage stays at 1.5 V, but now a larger current can be drawn.
Resistor Concept-l Flow of electric current through a conductor experiences a certain amount of sistance. The resistance, expressed in ohms (, named after George ohm), kilo-ohms (k2, 000 ), or mega-ohms (M(2, 106 ) is a measure of how much a resistor resists he flow of electricity. he magnitude of resistance is dictated by electric properties of the material and erial geometry is behavior of materials is often used to uits. control/limit electric current flow in rc Henceforth, the conductors that exhibit the property of resisting current flow are alled resistors carton fin spraled awaty to gve vakue end cap neulating coating motal lead Europe USA. Japan Resistor Symbols coramic rod
Resistors- Water Analogy ROCKS IN THE PIPE carbon film epiralled away to give value end cap insulating coating metal lead ceramic rod High Pressure Decreasing Voltage Decreasing Pressure Battery Load Pump Load Spring Power ressure
Re sistors: Power Rating and Composition It is very important to be aware of power rating of resistor used in circ uits and to make sure that this lim it is not violated A higher power ra ting re sistor can dissipate more energy that a lower power rating resistor. Resistorscan be made of: -Carbon film (decomposition of carbon film on a ceramic core). Carbon composition (carbon powder and glue-like binder). Metaloxide (ceramic core coated with metal oxide). Precision metal film - High power wire wound
Re sistor Examples 05W 1W 2W Contact leads vmbol for resistor 25 W Resistor aluminium fins
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