OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE Introduction Terms of biology Organisms Cell & it's structure DNA & RNA Genetics Organic evolution .. Botany Classification of botany Plant morphology .. Photosynthesis Plant disease Plant hormones
.. Ecology Pollution Human blood Systems of human body Digestive body Circulatory system Nervous system Excretory system Skeletal system Respiratory system Endocrine system Various types of nutrients Human diseases
BIOLOGYBIOS + LOGOS LIFE STUDY Branch of science which deals with study of life Term was coined by French naturalist Lamarck and Gottfried Treviramus in 1 801 BOTANY (Science of plants) CLASSIFICATION ZOOLOGY (Science of animals) Father of biology & Zoology :Aristotle Father of Botany: Theophrastus
Father of various science: Father of genetics : G.J. Mendel Father of Eugenics Francis Galton Father of mutation Hugo de Vries Father of Palaeontology: Leonardo da Vinci Father of Taxonomy: Carolus Linnaeus Father of Blood group K. Landsteinen Father of medicine Hippocrates Father of microbiology : Leeuwen hoek Father of Immunology: Edward Jenner
Branches and Terms of biology: Anatomy : Study of internal structure of organism after dissection. Agrology : Study of soil science regarding production of crop Apiculture : Rearing of honey bee for honey. Anthropology Study of origin, development and relationship between the culture of past and present human. Anthology : Study of flower and flowering plants. Angiology: Study pf blood vascular system including arteries and veins. Biometrics : Statical study of biological problem. Biomedical engineering : Production and designing of spare parts for overcoming defects of human beings. e.g. Artificial limbs, pacemaker, etc.
Bacteriology: Study of bacteria. Cytology : Study of cell. Cryobiology Study of effect of low temperature on organisms and their preservation. Cardiology Study of heart. Demography : Study of population. Dermatology Study of skin. Dendrochronology: Analysing annual growth of trees through rings of tree. Ecology : Study of inter-relationship between living and their environment. Evolution : Study of origin of life, variation and formation of new species.
Eugenics: Study of factors connected with improvement of human race Ethology Study of animal behaviour in their natural habitats. Entomology Study of insects. Floriculture : Cultivation of plants for flowers Forensic science: Application of science for analysis of various fact and evidence to identity the cause or the person involve in criminal act. Forestry : Development and management of forest. Fermentation Process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the formation of ethyl alcohol. Genetics : Study of variation and transmission of heredity character from parents to their young ones. Genetic engineering : Manipulation of gene in order to improve the organism.
Histology : Study of tissues Hydroponics : Study of growing plant without soil in water which contain nutrient. Haematology : Study of blood. Hepatology : Study of liver. Ichthyology : Study of fishes. Immunology : Study of immune system. Morphology Study of external structure. Microbiology Study of micro biology. Mycology: Study of fungi. Mixed farming : Farming along with animal husbandry
Nutrients: Chemical substances taken as food which are necessary for growth and function Neurology : Study of nervous system. Nephrology : Study of kidneys. Odontology : Study of teeth and gum. Osteology Study of bones. Ornithology : Study of birds. Ophthalmology Study of eyes. Phytoplankton: Microscopic organism which passively float on the water surface. Parasite: Organism which depend on other living organism for their food and shelter. Palaeontology : Study of fossils
ORGANISM All living beings are known as living organisms. - - Carolus Linnaeous is known as father of Taxonomy. - He divided organism into two kingdoms i.e. Plantae and Animalia. - Due to disputed position of organisms like bacteria, fungi and euglena it was reconsidered. FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION: LIVING ORGANISM MONERA ANIMALIA PROTISTA FUNGI PLANTAE
CELL . The structural and functional unit of life. - The word "cell" was coined by Robert Hook in 1665. - The smallest cell is Mycoplasma gallisepticum and biggest cell is egg of Ostrich. - The longest cell in human body is Neuron. Nuclear material is present in nucleoid. Prokaryotic cell Other membrane bound organelles are absent like mitochondria, lysosome, Golgi bodies, etc. e.g. Virus, bacteria and cyanobacteria. Types of cell Complete cell have membrane bound organelles and nucleus. Eukaryotic cell Nucleus is absent. Unicellularand multicellular plant and animal have Eukaryotic cell
Protoplasm : Fluid present inside plasma membrane. Name given by Purkenje in 1839. It is the living part of cell. Made up of various substance like water, ions, salt and organic molecule. +Cytoplasm (Outside the nuclear membrane) Nucleoplasm (inside the nuclear membrane) 80% of protoplasmi is made up of water. Ratio of inorganic and organic compound is 81:19 . Mitochondria: Altman discovered it in 1886. The fluid inside it is called as matrix, which contains many enzyme and co-enzyme. It synthesize energy in ATP. Called as Power house of the cell.
Golgi bodies: Discovered by Camilo golgi It work as storage, processing and packaging material Involved in the synthesis of cell wall, plasma membrane and lysosomes also help in the synthesis of carbohydrate from simple sugar. Endoplasmic reticulum : Tubules like structure found inside cytoplasm. Attached with nucleus and plasma membrane. Helps in distribution of material. Ribosome: Take part in protein synthesis. Discovered by Palade. Made up of RNA. Lysosome: Sac like structure called as suicide bag. Discovered by De Duve.
Centrosome : Discovered by Boveri. Found only in animal cell, take part in cell division. Plastid: Only present in plant cell. It is of three types: Chloroplast, Chromoplast, Leucolplast Chloroplast Green pigments found in green plants. Bound by two unit membrane grana and stroma. It provide green colour to the plants. Chromoplast : It provide various colours to the plants like flower, fruit, etc. Lycopene (red colour), Carotin (yellow or orange colour) and Betanin (Sugar beet) are types of chromoplast. Leucoplast: They are colourless. Found in roots and underground stems Stores food in the form of fat, starch and protein. Vacuole: It is single membrane bounded filled with fluid. Smaller in plant cell and larger in animal cell. Helps in osmoregulation.