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Social Capital- GS 2 (SHGs, Charities, Cooperatives) Lesson- 1 Presented By: ROMAN SAINI
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In This Lesson Introduction . Crucial Roles In Society
Social Capital Collective efforts and cooperative action have been a part of human behaviour right from the early days of civilisation Gradually such collective action led to formation of small habitations, communities, villages and thereafter large cities and metropolises. They in turn, created complex social groups and governmental organisations. .In course of time, government and society became too big and formalized and somewhat distant from the common man Thus evolved a need for mutual networking and interaction for solution of issues.
Social Capital . The term 'Social Capital' was first used by L.J. Hanifan, a State Supervisor for Rural Schools in Virginia in 1916. .He used it in the context of the community's involvement in the successful running of schools. As a concept, it received entry in social science literature in the 1980s. Soon it assumed an economic connotation and came to be accepted as a factor of production in the development theory. . It refers to those institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's interaction. .
Social Capital It consists of trust, mutual understanding, shared values and behaviour that bind together the members of a community and make cooperative action possible. .The basic premise is that such interaction enables people to build communities, to commit themselves to each other, and to knit the social fabric A sense of belonging and the concrete experience of social networking and the relationships of trust and tolerance that evolve can bring great benefits to people. Social capital now stands accepted as a necessary element of development theory. In many cases it provides a cogent explanation for the failure of economic policies.
Social Capital .The notion that a set of macro-economic policies supported by appropriate institutions would necessarily transform an economy often does not work in actual practice. Policies and institutions operate in an ensemble which is strongly conditioned by sociological parameters .Socio-cultural elements influence political and economic factors to behave in ways that considerably change the pace of the economic processes. Social Capital and Trust are elements of cohesion in society and entrepreneurship and are vital for setting in processes that expand social, economic and political opportunities. They lead to formation of specialised groups and organisations generally known as Social Capital Institutions or the third Sector. .
Social Capital Though, social capital as an element of human entrepreneurship came into focus in the western world only during the last two decades, cohesiveness and community institutions have been part of life and culture in our country right from the early days of Indian civilisation. . The archeological remains at Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of an advanced form of community life where people were linked extensively both socially as well economically with one another. The management of village commons, streets, irrigation tanks, ponds etc. was based primarily on a spirit of cooperation and mutual assistance.
Social Capital The Maurya and Gupta empires saw emergence of effective community organisations in the form of Sabhas and Village Councils, where local citizens could sort out many of their problems through mutual understanding and consultation. . In the far South, it was the Sangam era lasting for about seven centuries betweern 200 BC to 500 AD when the first signs of organised inter-community and intra-community systems and the concept of State sector appeared. Through the rise and fall of empires, this environment of mutual interaction and cooperative behaviour continued and to a large extent it may be given the credit of sowing the seeds of social and cultural nationalism across the subcontinent. .
Social Capital Non-profit organisations are also available to sub-groups of the population who desire a range of public goods that exceeds what the government or society is willing to support Non-profit organisations have a readymade role in planning hospitals, universities, social service agencies and civil organisations The Value Guardian Role: The role of the non-profit sector is to function as a "value guardian" in society, as exemplar and as embodiment of a fundamental value emphasizing individual initiative for the public good just as private economic enterprises serve as vehicles for promoting individual initiative for the private good. In the process, non-profit bodies foster pluralism, diversity and freedom
Social Capital In fact, most of the social movements that have animated western society over the past century the movement for women's suffrage, protection of civil rights and the initiative to protect environment, all took shape within the nonprofit sector By highlighting social and political concerns, by giving voice to underrepresented people and by integrating these perspectives into social and political life, these organisations function as a kind of safety-valve that helps to preserve democracy and maintain a degree of peace in the contemporary polity and society. . The Community Building Role:- Finally, non-profit organisations play a vital role in creating and sustaining social cohesiveness through bonds of trust and reciprocity that seem to be pivotal for a democratic society and a market economy to function effectively.