POLITY AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION INTRODUCTION
As of May 2018, there have been 123 Amendment Bills and 101 Amendment acts to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950 Procedure for Amendments - South Africa(Source) Amending the Constitution of India is the process of making changes to the nation's fundamental law or supreme law There are two types of amendments to the constitution which are governed by article 368
The first type includes amendments that can be effected by Parliament of India by a prescribec special majority, ratification by the State Legislatures >The second type amendments made to the constitution by simple majority(39) - 3, 6, 7, 8,13, 14, 15. 16, 22. 23, 24. 25. 28, 30, 31, 32. 35, 36. 38. 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 54. 61, 62, 70. 73, 74. 75. 79, 84, 88, 95, 99 and 101
Part 20 of the Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure As per the procedure laid out by article 368 for amendment of the Constitution, an amendment can be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill in either House of Parliament The Bill, passed by the required majority, is then presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill
>The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the president There is no provision for holding a joint sitting of the two Houses for the purpose of deliberation and passage of the bill The Amendment Bill must be passed by a majority(for Special Majority Only) of two-thirds of the members of each House present and voting and such majority must exceed 50% of the total membership of the House
After duly passed by both the Houses of Parliament and ratified by the state legislatures, where necessary, the bill is presented to the president for assent The president must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withhold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament After the president's assent, the bill becomes an Act (i.e., a constitutional amendment act) and the Constitution stands amended in accordance with the terms of the Act
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