MAHATMA GANDHI (2 October 1869- 30 January 1948) .- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Celebrated 2 Oct as "GANDHI JAYANTI" UNO declared Oct 2 as "International Non-Violence Day" - Called as Bapu and Gandhi ji, and known as the Father of the Nation Father: Karamachand Gandhi Mother: Putali Bai
TITLE RECEIVED Mahatma (Saint) -title given by Rabindranath Tagore, 1917; Malang Baba/Nanga Faqir (Naked Saint) - title given by Kabailis of Noth-West Frontier, 1930; Indian Faqir/Traitor Faqir- title given by Winston Churchill, 1931; . Half-naked Saint title given by - Franq Mores, 1931; Rashtrapita (the Father of the Nation)- title given by Subhash Chandra Bose, 1944.
BOOKS Hind Swaraj (1909), My Experiments with Truth (Autobiography, 1927)-reveals events of Gandhi's life upto 1922. . Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translation:s of his books
LITERARY WORK: * As an Editor:- Opinion: 1903-15 (in English & Gujarati, for a short period in Hindi &: Tamil), Harijan: 1919-31 (in English, Gujarati and Hindi), Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly,- later on Hindi, on his return to India
EVENTS OF GANDHII 1869: Born on October 2 as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi at Porbandar in the western Indian state of Gujarat. 1883: Married off by his parents to Kasturba Makanji. The couple are both aged 13 and go on to have four children. . 1888-1891: Studies law in London. 1893 Departure of Gandhi to South Africa 1893-1915: Works as a lawyer in South Africa. . In 1913 carries out his first non-violent action, the Transvaal march, a protest against the ban on Indian immigration.
* 1904 : Foundation of Indian Opinion (magazine) and Phoenix Farm, at Phoenix, near Durban. 1906 First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagaraha) against Asiatic Ordiannce in Transvaal *1907 : Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Asians (The Black Act) in Transvaal. 1908: Trial and imprisonment-Johanesburg Jail (First Jail Term) 1910 Foundation of Tolstoy Farm), near Johannesburg .1914 Awarded Kaisar-i-Hind for raising an Indian Ambulance Core during Boer wars
1915 Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 January 1915; Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near Ahmedabad (20 May). In 1917, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati; . 1916 Abstain from active politics (though he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 26-30 December, 1916, where Raj Kumar Shukla, a cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come to Champaran.) 1917: Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators oppressed by Indigo planter of Bihar (April 1917). Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India 1918: cooperation Movement. In Febuary 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers. Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle. In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owing to failure of crops.
* 1919: Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command of the nationalist movement for the first time (First all- India Political Movement), Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre-April 13, 1919; . The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (November 1919, Delhi). . 1920-22: Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement (August 1, 1920-Febuary 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri-Chaura on Febuary 5, 1922. Non-Co-operation Movement was the First mass based politics under Gandhi.
. 1925-27: Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to 'constructive programme' of the Congress; Gandhi resumes active politics in 1927. . 1930-34: Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandhi march/Salt Satyagraha (First Phase: March 12, 1930-March 5, 1931; Gandhi-lrwin Pact: March 5, 1931; Gandhi attends the Second Round Table Conference in London as sole representative of the Congress: September 7-December. 1, 1931; Second Phase: January 3, 1932-April 17, 1934) 1934-39: Set up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram) 1940-41: Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.
* 1947 : Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/Partition Plan (June 3, 1947), while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence on the dawn of India's Independence (August, 15, 1947). Gandhi returns to Delhi (September 1947) * 1948: Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (January 30, 1948)
Gandhi did not receive the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee . When the 14th Dalai Lama wa:s awarded the Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".
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