BRICS leaders while_firmly_opposing_protectionism emphasized the importance of an open and inclusive world economy enabling all countries and peoples to share in the benefits of globalization. BRICS leaders agreed to promote the development of BRICS Local Currency_Bond_Markets and jointly establish a BRICS Local Currency Bond Fund, as a means of contribution to the capital sustainability of financing in BRICS countries. xi. Agaba Process- Jordan launched the Aqaba process to promote deradicalisation in which India is an active participant. xii. 'BeijingDeclarationonEducation'- Beijing Declaration ON EDUCATION adopted in the 5th Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Education in Beijing, China, on July 5th, 2017.
xiii. Delhi Declaration' Recently, ASEAN-India Commemorative Summit held to mark 25th Anniversary of ASEAN-India relations. In the plenary session of the India- ASEAN commemorative summit, Delhi Declaration was issued. Under the declaration leaders agreed on the following issues: V Strengthen and deepen the ASEAN-India Strategic Partnership for mutual benefit, across the whole spectrum of political-security, economic, socio-cultural and development cooperation. Continue to exert efforts and cooperate towards the full, effective and timely implementation of the Plan of Action to Implement the ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity
VReaffirm the importance of maintaining and promoting peace, stability, maritime safety and security, freedom of navigation and overflight in the region, and other lawful uses of the seas and unimpeded lawful maritime commerce and to promote peaceful resolutions of disputes. V Deepen cooperation in combating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, violent extremism and radicalisation througlh information sharing, support the implementation of the Langkawi Declaration on the Global_Movement of Moderates to_promote_peace, security upholding rule of law, sustainable and inclusive development, equitable growth and social harmony. [According to the Langkawi Declaration, the ASEAN countries would organize outreach programs, interfaith and cross-cultural dialogues ay national, regional and international levels. Most
importantly, there should be more information-sharing on best practices on moderation among the members and through the ASEAN Secretariat. The idea of moderation is also in line with the UN many initiatives, especially the UN Alliance of Civilizations, which is also aimed at promoting dialogues and better understandings among different religions, races and cultures. ] V Strengthen cooperation between ASEAN and India on cyber- security capacity building and policy coordination, including through supporting the implementation of the ASEAN Cybersecurity Cooperation Strategy xiv. Balfour Declaration The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish
people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population XV. xv. Karamay_Declaration - Karamay Declaration is collaboration between Pakistan and China in space technology under China- Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). It stressed upon a joint launch of space missions which would consist of astronauts from both countries.
Conventions i. India has ratified six out of the eight core/fundamental International Labour Organisation (ILO) Conventions. These are the - a) Forced Labour Convention, 1930 b) Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 c) Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 d) Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 e) Minimum Age Convention, 1973 f) Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 India has not ratified the core/fundamental Conventions, namely a) Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948.
b) Right to Organise and Collective Barqaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98) ii. Budapest Convention V The Convention on Cybercrime of the Council of Europe. Budapest Convention is the only binding international instrument on this issue. V India has not signed or acceded to the convention on the ground of security_and on the_point it was_not involved in_drafting of convention. iii. TIR Convention India became the 71st signatory to TIR international transit system, designed to facilitate the seamless movement of goods throughout
the countries in Asia and Europe. The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention) is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport. (TIR stands for "Transports Internationaux Routiers" or "International Road Transports".) TIR transit system was developed soon after the Second World War in order to help revitalise the economies of post war Europe. The TIR Agreement was concluded in 1949 and its success led to the establishment in 1959 of the first TIR Convention. The TIR system not only covers customs transit by road but a combination is possible with other modes of transport (e.g., rail,
inland waterway, and even maritime transport), as long as at least one part of the total transport is made by road iv. Haque Abduction Convention The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or Hague Abduction Convention is a multilateral treaty developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH) that provides an expeditious method to return a child internationally abducted by a parent from one member country to another, The primary intention of the Convention is to preserve whatever status quo child custody arrangement existed immediately before an alleged wrongful removal or retention thereby deterring a parent from crossing international boundaries in search of a more
sympathetic court. The Convention applies only _to children under the age of 16. Under the Convention, contracting countries must establish a central authority to trace unlawfully removed children and secure their return to the country of habitual residence, irrespective of the country's own laws on the issue. India has not ratified the Convention v. Chicago Convention The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and
The Convention aims to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms from one region to another and halt damage to the marine environment from ballast water discharge, by minimising the uptake and subsequent discharge of sediments and organisms. From 2024 all ships are required to have approved Ballast Water Management Treatment System, according to the D2 standard. Existing ships are required to install an approved system, which may cost up to 5 million USD per ship to install India is vet to ratify Ballast Water Management Convention vii. BUNKER Convention The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (BUNKER) is an International treaty listed and administered
vii. BIO International Convention The BIO International Convention, hosted by Biotechnology Innovation Organization BIO since 1993, is the largest global event for the biotechnology industry and attracts the biggest names in biotech, offers key networking and partnering opportunities, and provides insights and inspiration on the major trends affecting the industry Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is the world's largest trade association representing biotechnology companies, academic institutions, state biotechnology centers and related organizations across the United States and in more than 30 other nations. ix. Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism
An engineer from IIT Kharagpur with over 4 years of teaching experience in both IIT JEE & UPSC CSE.