Kalpesh J Gadhvi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
HEALTH AND DISEASES
ABOUT ME o Kalpesh gadhvi 01 am pursuing MBBS from PDU medical college Rajkot o My hobbies are to playing cricket, listen music o You can follow me on unacademy o If you like my coursesthan rate review recommend and Share it Le Max2
Common Diseases in Humans What is Health? Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. Health increases productivity and ensures longevity. Ways to Ensure Good Health Balanced diet Personal hygiene Exercise Awareness about prevention and control of diseases Proper waste disposal and control of vectors Vaccination Why do Diseases Occur? Genetic reasonsInnate deficiencies and inheritable defects Infections Sedentary life style Junk food, consumption of alcohols/drugs, lack of exercise
Pathogenic Diseases Pathogens are the parasites that enter the human body through various means, then multiply, and interfere with normal vital activities. . Bacterial Diseases .Typhoid o Pathogen Salmonella typhi Spreads through-contaminated food and water o Site of infection Small intestine Symptoms-High fever, stomach pain, headache, loss of appetite, constipation, and intestinal perforations in severe cases o Confirmatory test Widal test . Pneumonia o Pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
o Spreads through Droplets/aerosols released from infected person, sharing of glasses or utensils Site of infection-Alveoli (gets filled with fluid, difficulty in breathing) o Symptoms Fever, chills, cough, headache, lips and nails become grey in severe cases Viral Diseases Common cold o Pathogen Rhino viruses o Site of infection Nose and respiratory passage o Spreads through-Droplets released from coughing or sneezing, or contaminated objects Symptoms-Nasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, cough, headache, tiredness
Protozoan Diseases Malaria o Pathogen Plasmodium sps. (P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malaria) o Vector Female Anopheles mosquito Symptoms-High grade fever, chills Amoebiasis o Pathogen Entamoeba histolytica o Vector Housefly o Site of infection Large intestine o Symptoms - Constipation, abdominal pain, cramps, stools with mucous, and blood clots Fungal Diseases Ringworms o Pathogens Genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophytor o Spreads through Towels, clothes, comb (Fungus is acquired from soil)
o Symptoms Appearance of dry, scaly lesions on various body parts with intense itching Diseases Caused by Worms Ascariasis Pathogen-Round worm, Ascaris o Spreads through-water, vegetables, fruits contaminated by faeces of infected person Symptoms-Internal bleeding, muscular pain, fever, anaemia, blockage of intestinal passage Elephantiasis (filariasis) o PathogenWuchereria (W.malayi and W.bancrofti) o Spreads through Bite of female mosquito vector Symptom-Chronic inflammation of the organs, usually the lymphatic vessels of lower limb
Life Cycle of Plasmodium . Plasmodium requires two hosts to complete its life cycle. When female Anopheles mosquito bites a healthy human being, it releases Plasmodium, which lives in its body as sporozoite (infectious form) . The parasites multiply (asexual reproduction) in the liver cells and finally burst the liver cells. Sporozoites are released in blood. Parasites enter RBCs and further multiply (asexual reproduction) here and finally burst RBCs also. Bursting of RBCs is accompanied by release of a toxic substance called haemozoin (associated with fever and chills). . In the RBCs, only sporozoites change into gametocytes (sexual stage). Gametocytes multiply. When the diseased person is bitten by a female Anopheles mosquito, gametocytes are introduced into the mosquito. Gametocytes fertilise and develop inside the intestine of mosquito to
form sporozoites. . Sporozoites are stored in the salivary glands of mosquito and are released into the healthy person who is bitten by this mosquito When the mosquito bites another human, Mature infoctive stages <sporo,oitos) escapo from intestine and * rate to the mosquito salis livary glands roach the liver through bloo Salivary s lands Fetilisation and development take place in the mosquitos Mosquito Host The parasito reproduces asexually in liver cells ursting the cell and releasing into the blood Female mosquito takes up gametocytes Female asexually in red blood cells, bursting the red blood cells and causing eyeles of fever and other symptoms. Relcased parasites infoct now red blood colls Malo Sexual stages (gametocyte) develop in rod blood cells
Immunity What is immunity? . The ability of body to fight the disease-causing organisms is called immunity Types of immunity . Immunity is of two types innate immunity and acquired immunity. Innate immunity It is present from the time of birth. It is non-specific. It consists of 4 kinds of barriers.
Acquired immunity It is acquired, which means that it is produced in response to an encounter with a pathogen based on memory. It is pathogen specific. o When a pathogen for the first time infects a person, low intensity immune response is generated (primary response) o When the same pathogen attacks again, intensified immune response in generated, thereby preventing the occurrence of disease (secondary response). Acquired immunity involves two types of cells B-lymphocytes and T- lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes -Secrete proteins called antibodies in response to pathogens Antibodies are specialized proteins with 4 peptide chains (2 light and 2 heavy), hence denoted as H2L2 IgA IgM, IgE, etc. are examples of some of the antibodies. They generate humoral immune response (found in blood). o T-lymphocytes They help B-cells to produce antibodies. They generate cell -mediated immune response. This response helps the body to differe n tiate between self, and non-self, as occurs in case of graft rejection. Difference between active immunity and passive immunity Active Immunity
Secondary lymphoid organs - Lymphocytes migrate here after attaining maturity. It includes spleen, lymph nodes tonsils, Peyer's patches, and appendix. o Spleen - Large bean-shaped organ containing lymphocytes and phagocytes, which acts as a filter for blood o Lymph nodes Located at different points throughout the immune system, they trap the antigens present in lymph or tissue fluid, and these antigens cause activation of lymphocytes and generation of immune response. MALT (Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue) Lines major tracts (respiratory, digestive, urogenital, etc); constitutes 50% of lymphoid tissue in body
Retrovius Viral RNA cone Vinus infects normal cell Viral protein Plasmua Animal cell Viral RNA is into cel1 Viral DNA s Viral INA is in oorporated into host genome by reverse New viral RNA the infected cell New viruses are produoed Nucleas DNA New viruses oan infeet other ecells NOTE: Infected oell can survive while viruses are being repliouted and released o Macrophages become a virtual HIV factory. o Thereafter, HIV enters helper T-lymphocytes, replicates, and produces progenies. o As the progenies are released, they attack other T-lymphocytes. o Therefore, T-lymphocytes start decreasing in number and immune response of the person becomes weak o Even infections which could be overcome easily start aggravating.
. Diagnosis of AIDS By ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay) Treatment No permanent cure; antiretroviral therapies can prolong the life of patient . Prevention of AIDS o Ensuring use of disposable syringes o Screeningblood from blood banks o Advocating safe sex o NACO (National AIDS Control Organization) and many NGOs are doing a lot to create awareness among people.
CANCER The process of development of cancer is called oncogenic transformation. Normal cells have the property of contact inhibition (stoppage of growth on coming in contact with other cells), but cancer cells lose this property As a result, cancer cells divide continuously to give rise to mass of cells (tumours). Tumours are of 2 types - benign and malignant. Benign tumours - Remain confined to their original location and do not spread Malignant tumours These exhibit metastasis i.e., the cells sloughed from such tumours reach distant sites and wherever they reach, new tumour is formed Malignant tumours actually represent cancer. The cells actively divide, grow, and starve the normal cells of vital nutrients.
Perception of consuming alcohol / drug being cool and progressive and use of alcohol/drug in television, movies, etc. further promote this habit. Alcohol Drug Addiction When a person uses alcohol/ drug repeatedly, he becomes addicted Addiction refers to psychological attachment to certain effects such as euphoria and temporary feeling of well-being associated with use of alcohol or drugs. In addiction, tolerance level of receptors present in our body increases towards the drug. This drives the person to use them even when they are not required or when they tend to harm his health family life. Subsequently, the user runs into a vicious circle of addiction and subsequent dependence. Dependence leads to manifestation of withdrawal syndrome on discontinuation of use. Withdrawal syndrome Anxiety, nausea, sweating, shakiness, and sometimes may be lethal
o In males-Acne, aggressiveness, depression, reduction in size of testicles, decreased sperm production, enlargement of prostate gland, breast enlargement, premature baldness Ultimately, prolonged use of alcohol/drugs leads to coma and death Preventing Alcohol Drug Abuse It is better to prevent the inclination of an individual towards alcohol/ drugs right from adolescence. Some of the ways of prevention are: Avoid peer pressure Understand the unique personality and capabilities of a child Education and counselling-A child must be taught to accept success and failure equally. Especially during adolescence, he must be inclined towards constructive activities such as music, yoga, sports, reading based on his interest. o Help from parents and peersThis includes proper guidance, advice, and trust to overcome problems such as stress and guilt. Identifying danger signals If any sign of symptom of alcohol drug abuse is seen in the adolescent by family or friends, then it should not be ignored because prevention is better than cure Seeking medical help Psychologists and rehabilitation programs surely help an addict. Medical help should be sought to prevent further damage.