CHAPTER 8 HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES
Health: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being . When people are healthy, they are more efficient at work. This increases productivity and brings economic prosperity . Health also increases long life and reduces infant and maternal mortality. . The good health is maintained by balanced diet, personal hvgiene and regular exercise
The health is affected by 1. Genetic disorders 2. Infections 3. Life style including Diet, rest and exercise. Drug . Diseases are grouped into infectious and non- . Diseases which are easily transmitted from one . Diseases which are not transmitted from one and alcohol abuse also affect our health adversely. infectious person to another are called infectious diseases person to another are called non infectious diseases. . Cancer is the non-infectious that cause death
COMMON DISEASES IN HUMANS: . organisms belonging to bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths, etc., cou ld cause diseases in man. Such disease causing organisms are called pathogens. TYPHOID: Pathogen: Salmonella typhi (bacterium) . Organs affected: small intestine, migrate to other organs through blood Method of transmission: contamination of food and water Salmonella typhi.
* Symptoms: ) High fever (39 to 40 C Weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache and loss of appetite. . . Intestinal perforation may leads to death. Test: Typhoid fever could be confirmed by Widal test.
PNEUMONIA: Pathogen: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Organs affected: Alveoli of lungs, alveoli get filled with fluid.
Method of transmission: Inhaling the droplets/aerosols released by infected person. Symptoms: Fever, chills, cough and headache. . In severe cases the lips and finger nails turn gray to bluish colour.
rhinovirus 3 POB:1rh COMMON COLD: Pathogen: Rhino viruses. Organs affected: nose and respiratory passage Method of transmission: Direct inhalation of droplets from infected person. Through contaminated objects like pen, books, cups, computer key board.
Symptoms: Nasal congestion and discharge, sore throat, hoarseness, cough. tiredness, etc., It usually last for 3-7 days.
MALARIA: Pathogen: Plasmodium. (P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. falciparum) . Malignant malaria caused by P. falciparum is fatal Organs affected: liver, RBC. Method of transmission: By biting of female anopheles mosauito (vector)
In mosquitoes Oocysts develoP in gut wall Sporozoites develop in oocyst Sporozoites migrate to salivary glands Parasites sucked up Sporozoites injected with Gametocytes mosquito bite Red blood cell stage Liver stage In humans
, life cycle of malaria parasite: The malarial parasite requires two hosts- human and Anopheles, to complete their life cycle Life cycle of plasmodium starts with injecting sporozoites through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasite initially multiplied within the liver cells and then attack the red blood cells (RBCs) resulting in their rupture Second Stage agote aan First Stag os ocum te Plasmodium Life Cycle Salvary dfand Liver on