Course :- On Your Request Lesson:- World Trade Organization 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Impediments to the world trade . Tariff:- Tax on Imports . Quota . Protectionism . Economic Nationalism Export Subsidies Dumping :- Desperate attempt to crash a market. Subsidies . Trade Surplus Trade Deficit
Countries advocating for free trade!! Britain USA China (1600-1930) ( (1930- 2010) (2010- ????)
History of the World Trade Discussions Subject Years 1947,49,51 ,56,61 1964-67 1973-79 Place Geneva, Annecy, lorquay, Geneva Kennedy Round Tokyo Round Countries Tariffs 23,13,38,26, Tariffs and Anti Dumping Tariffs, Non Tariff measure FrameWork agreements 26 62 102 103 Tariffs, non Tariffs, Rules, Services, IPR, Dispute settelments, Agriculture, WTO creation Etc 1986-94 Uruguay Round
Hence WTO was established After Uruguary Round in 1995 @ Marakkesh, Morocco. Unlike The GATT it has institutional structure Included many others like Intellectual Property . Strong Dispute Resolution Mechanism
Course :- On Your Request Lesson :- Details of WTO 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Free Trade Discrim Political Doctrine like MFN, National Treatment etc Non Economic Doctrine Fair Comp 2 Econ -Against Dumping O and Intellectual property protection Reform
Organization Structure of WTO Ministerial Conference Trade Policy Review Body General Dispute Settlement Body Council Committee on TD and TE Goods Service IP Law Council Council
Major Agreements of WTO . Agreements on Subsidies and Counterveiling measure GATS Positive List, Negative Lists, Mode 1, 2,3,4 TRIPS - Intellectual Property TRIMS Trade related Investment measures . Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) . Multi Fibre Arrangement and agreement on Textiles and Clothing. MFA Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Measures
Subsidies and Counterveling (SCM) . Subsidies are quite dangerous as it impedes global trade . Four types :- Enterprise specificity, Industry Specificity,Regional . HENCE, Subsidies can be contingent upon Export Performance, Comes in conflict with national interests. Specificity, Prohibited Specificity or use of domestic content on imported goods. COUNTER VELING DUTIES and ANTI DUMPING DUTIES
General Agreements on Trade . Services account for 60% of Global production and employments bu represent no more than 20% of Total Trade. Likely to Continue due to INTERNET There are issues regarding Positive List and Negative List .4 Modes of Negotiations under GATS Mode 1 :- Cross border movt without nat Persons. Like BPO. India wants this. Mode 2: Supply of serve of one country to service consumer of another Mode 3:- Commercial Presence. West wants this. Mode 4:- Presence of Natural persons. Like Infy sending engineers onsite
TRIPS :- Trade related aspects of IP rights International agreement administered by World trade organization as per Uruguay Round in 1994 Huge lssues between Developed and developing nations. . Doha Round had an agreement favouring developing Nation .TRIMS:- Trade related Investment measures Certain investments measures can restrict and distort trade. . Like Local Content requirement. . Recently India and DCR regarding Solar Cells.
Agreement of Agriculture . Remove trade barriers and to promote transparent market access and integration of global markets. Mainly developed contries to exploit weak countries . PL 480 and Eisenhover's aid to India. Current reality of India w.r.t Agri Export Policy.
Amber Box and AMS Biggest contention. Reduction based on Aggregate measure of Support (By Govt to Farmers) - AMS It requires the member courtied to report their total AMS for period between 1986 and 1988. Reduce these figures by 20% over 6 years starting 1995, g to 13% over 10 years. LDC needn't do anything .Problem with 1986-1988
Course :- On Your Request Lesson:- WTO - Ministerial Rounds 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Singapore ministerial, 1996 . 4 mains issues Trade and Investment, Trade and Competition policy, Trade Facilitation, Transparency and Govt Procurement. SINGAPORE ISSUES as we might have to surrender our Sovereign Rights. HARDCORE cartels can destroy the . We have problem with Invesment and Competition policy . We will not be able to propel our national priorities
DOHA MINISTERIAL, 2001 . Very important, because it was failure earlier. DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA Till now developed were trying to force developing, but it was successfully resisted. . Three main points Agriculture Access to patented Medicines Special and Differential Treatments :-
Minor Ones Cancun Ministerial, 2003 - The Fight continues. Singapore issues back on the table. G20 Established in this ministerial Agenda. agenda . Generv talks Dropping the Singapore Issues from Doha . Potsdam - 2007:- Break down of Doha Development
Nairobi Ministerial 2015 Dilution of Doha Development Agenda, focus on Trade facilitation agreement. Most negotitation in Government procurement, E Commerce, Investment, Competition policy Before this, Many countries like India, China, Indonesia, Ecuador, Venezuela to preserve DDA, and Public Stockholding and SSM.