Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Different types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems Lesson 1
In this Lesson History of irrigation Traditional Water Harvesting Methods .<
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil for growing crop, in the absence of rainfall * Irrigation Development across the world * 6th millennium BC - Evidence of irrigation in Mesopotamia and Egypt e 4th millennium BC- Canal irrigation in Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru . 2600 BC- Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India . 1800 BC- Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet - Il uses the natural lake of the Fay m for irrigation
800 BC- The Qanats (network of vertical wells) are developed in ancient . Persia * Around the same time, Noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rinm powered by the flow of the stream is developed by the Roman settlers irn North Africa 300 BCE-in ancient Sri Lanka, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water 250 BC- In the Szechwan region ancient China the Dujiangyan Irrigation System was built to irrigate a large area and it still supplies water .
Ancient India Vedas made references to canals and wells . The Indus Valley Civilization in NW India and Pakistan flourished in the banks of a river They also had an early canal irrigation system, did small, minor irrigation techniques like digging well Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed Eg- reservoirs built at Girnar in 3000 BC * * In South, Cholas constructed Grand Anicut from Kaveri river and built many Tanks
Medieval India Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1220-1250) is credited to be the first ruler who encouraged building canals . Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-86) is considered to be the greatest canal builder * Agriculture had become a main source of revenue, hence great attention was given to irrigation Irrigation was one of the major reasons for the growth and expansion of the Vijayanagar Empire in southern India Babur in his memoirs called 'Baburnama' gave a vivid description of prevalent modes of irrigation practices e .
British period Famines between 1897-1900 forced the British to appoint first irrigation commission in 1901 . * They wanted to know how irrigation could be used as a means of protection against famine in India During 1910 to 1950 growth rate of irrigation was estimated at 2 % per annum for government canal irrigation and 0.54 % per annum for well irrigation Important irrigation works include Upper Ganga canal, Periyar Dam, Betwa canal, Canals in Krishna-Godavari river systems .
Some important traditional water harvesting technique:s Jhalaras are rectangular-shaped stepwells that have tiered steps on all sides The city of Jodhpur has eight jhalaras, the oldest being the Mahamandir Jhalara that dates back to 1660 AD . . Talab/Bandhis are reservoirs that store water, ponds, man made lakes . They were mainly built in the Bundelkhand and Udaipur regions . A reservoir with an area less than five bighas is called a talab, a medium sized lake is called a bandhi and bigger lakes are called sagar
Ahar Pynes are traditional floodwater harvesting systems of South Bihar Ahars are reservoirs that are built at the end of diversion channels like pynes Johads are small earthen check dams that capture and store rainwater and help recharge groundwater A storage pit is made by excavating the area, and excavated soil is used to create a wall on the fourth side * . . * * They are common in Karnataka, Odisha and Rajasthan Panam Keni is a special type of well used by the the Kuruma tribe of Wayanad, Kerala Wooden cylinders are made by soaking the stems of toddy palms in water for a long time so that the core rots away until only the hard outer layer remains .
* Zabo system is practised in Nagaland . Rainwater that falls on hiltops is collected by channels that deposit the run-off water in ponds at bottom of hill The channels pass through cattle yards, collecting the dung and urine of animals, before ultimately draining into paddy fields at the foot of the hill Zings are small tanks that collect melting glacier water that are found in Ladakh Kunds are saucer-shaped catchment area that gently slope towards the central circular underground well Kunds are found in western Rajasthan and Gujarat . * .