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Highway Engineering Part 1
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Different modes of Transportation

Ashwin Balasubramanian
Studying B.Tech Mechanical Engineering Third year in Karunya University, Coimbatore.

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sir malaria is cause by female anapheles mosquito and dengue cause by ades egypti mosquito..
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  1. TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING B.ASHWIN


  2. INTRODUCTION . Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. . Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between persons, which is essential for the development of civilizations. fM


  3. IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPORTATION ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND TRANSPORT SOCIAL EFFECTS OF TRANSPORTATION ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT


  4. MODES OF TRANSPORTATION ROADWAYS RAILWAYS AIRWAYS WATERWAYS


  5. .The transportation by the air is the fastest among the four modes. it also provides more comfort and saving in transportation t me. . Transportation by water is the slowest among four modes; but it needs minimum energy to haul unit load through unit distance. .The transportation along the railway track could be advantageous for the both passengers and goods, particularly for the long distances. .The energy requirement to haul unit load through unit distance by the railway is only a fraction (1/4 to 1/6) of that required by road. .The transportation by road is the only mode which could give maximum service to one and all


  6. .The branch of transportation engineering which deals with the planning, design, construction and maintenance of road and roadway facilities to cater to the needs of road traffic are covered under Road Engineering or Highway Engineering .The design and laying of railway tracks and yards, their maintenance and safety and control of train movements are dealt in Railway Engineering . The development of terminal facilities for ships and boats, their harbouring, repairs etc. are covered under Harbour Enineering. . The planning, design, construction and maintenance of airports and other facilities for the operation of aircrafts are dealt in Airport Engineering


  7. Highway Engineering


  8. Scope of Highway Engineering 1. Development, Planning and Locations, 2. Highway Design, Geometrics and Structures, 3. Traffic Performance and its control, 4. Materials, Construction and Maintenance, 5. Economics, Finance and Administration.


  9. Highway Development and Planning Historical Development of Road Construction 1. Early Developments: The oldest mode of travel obviously was on the foot-paths, Animals were also used to transport men and material. invention of wheel Such a hard surface is believed to have existed in Later simple animal drawn vehicles were developed after the .This brought up the necessity of providing a hard surface Mesopotamia in the period about 3500 B.C. . The first road on which there is some authentic record of ASSYRIAN empire constructed by about 1900 B.C


  10. 2. Roman Roads The Roman Road . Some of these roads are still in existence after over 2000 years staneplocks They were built straight regardless of gradients. Built after the soft soil was removed NCrushed stone in cement& . The total thickness of the construction was as high as 0.75 to 1.2 m.