ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS Xylem Phloem Tissue Ground : Tissue Dermal Tissue Epidermis) Bu Aprafita shankhdhar
PLANT TISSUE Meristematic tissue Permanent tissue Apical meristem Lateral menstem Complex Intercalary meristem Simple Parenchyma hym Collenchyma Sclerenchym Fibres Sclereids Xylem 1. Tracheids 2. Vessels (Tracheae) 3. Xylem parenchyma 4. Xylem parenchyma 5. Xylem fibres Phloem 1. Sieve tubes 2. Compaion cells 3. Phloem parenchyma 4. Phloem fibres
Ground Tissue System All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground tissue. It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma .Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots. Inleaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containingcells and is called mesophyll.
Vascular Tissue System The vascular system consists of complex tissues,the phloem and the xylem The xylem and phloem together constitute vascular bundles. In dicotyledonous stems, cambium is present between phloem and xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the presence of cambium possess the ability to form secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence are called open vascular bundles. In the monocotyledons,the vascular bundles have no cambium present in them. Hence, since they do not form secondary tissues they are referred to as closed.
When xylem and phloem within a vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate manner on different radii, the arrangement is called radial such as in roots. .In conjoint type of vascular bundles,the xylem and phloem are situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular bundles are common in stems and leaves. The conjoint vascular bundles usually have the phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.
Phloem Phloem Cambium Xylem Xylem Xylem Phloem (b) conjoint closed (c) conjoint open g: Various types of vascular bundles :(a) radial
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Leaf Stem Dermal tissue Root Ground tissue Vascular tissue
Dermal tissue (epidermis) Ground tissue Xyenm Vascular tissue -Phloem
cuticle upper _ epidermis palisade parenchyma spongy mesophyll/ parenchyma lower epidermis guard cell sub stomatal cavity
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