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Government Of India Act of 1858
a year ago
sir can you please explain what is sepoy mutiny?
a year ago
Hi Deepak. Sure I do
a year ago
The uprising of native soldiers in British East India company army was called as Sepoy Mutiny. The nomenclature varies from British historians version and to ours. Britishers called the uprising as Sepoy Mutiny or Revolt of 1857, and our historians extolled it as “ First war of Independence”. Lot of reasons behind Revolt of 1857. After theBattle of plassey, Robert Clive established the East India Company’s monopoly over collection of taxes in the Bengal Povince, the richest province in entire India at that time. Occupation of Bengal provoked East India Company towards expansion of territories as it realised that the weaknesses of Indian rulers, the panjundrams of local rulers can be easily won over by way of chicanery and perfidy. 1840s to 1850s had seen lot of territories annexed to East India Companys’ domain and militia also expanded to suit the governance. All the native soldiers were very much disciplined and subservient to British officers till 1950s. Major reasons for Revolt of 1857. As their occupied areas were consolidated for yielding better revenue, lot of Chiristian misssionaries spread over to India twith an intent to convert Indian masses to Christianity which sent wrong signals to the orthodox muslims and Hindus. They were under the impression that British is bent on converting people of India to Christianity.The new pattern of Enfield rifles issued to native soldiers in 1853 warranted that the catridges were to be bitten off and also greased to insert easily in to the barrel said to be consisting of Pig and cow fat, infuriated Hindu and Muslims sepoys as it would against their religious sentiments.As more and more areas were conquered by British from local rulers, more and more sepoys served under them have become unemployed and converted themselves as bandits to prey on innocent citizens. When mutiny occurred all these unemployed sepoy lent their hand to the leaders of uprising to grab as much as possible out of spillage of war.DOCTRINE OF LAPSE - in which a local leader dies with out a heir apparent, the East India Company would annex those kingdoms to their governance and this doctrine of lapse was abused in a quesionable manner to suit them.The high handed behaviour of East India COmpany officials, the interference in the affairs of local rulers, high taxes in the areas under their governance and systematic extirpation of local arisans - all sections of society were unhappy and bore a grouse against the East India Company which lead them either directly participate or support the mutiny. How and where it started? On 29th, March, 1857, a soldier called Mangal Pandey of barrockpore contonment of Bengal regiment fired the first salvo. He was very much annoyed by the attitude of British and fired a British lieutenant, later try to kill himself by firing a gun against his chest but survived and hanged to death on 8th, April, 1857. Jamedar Iswari Prasad, who is ordered to controll Mangal Pandey also hanged on 22nd, April, 1857 for his refusal or disobeying a superior orders. The revolt spread to other areas, disturbances continued in Meerut, Cawnpore, Lucknow and Delhi, headed by Tantiya Tope, Nana Saheb and Jhansi Lakshmibai. In some areas small bands of sepoys participated on thier own volition and in some areas it was organised. Mutineers occupied Delhi and for few months it was under their occupation . The aging King of Mughals, Bahadur Shaw Jaffar was declared as “ EMPEROR OF HINDUSTAN”. Uprising of 1857 turned in to violent, lot of atracities perpetrated on both sides. In one such ghastly event, British women and children captured in cawnpore (kanpur)were ordered to be killed by Nana Saheb, when sepoys refused to kill the innocent children and women, Nana Saheb engaged butchers from outside to finnish the job. When mutiny was controlled in 1858, British wanted to teach a lesson to the participants of mutiny, and they thought, killing them by hanging is too soft, so they tied two to three soldiers to the mouth of cannon and they were blown to smithereens. More than 3,00,00 indian soldiers were killed during the rebellion as against the 50,000 British. AFTERMATH Bahadur Shaw Jaffar, the last mughal emperor was arrested near Humayun tomb, tried by military court and exiled to Rangoon, where he died in 1862. The power to govern India had been transferred to British Crown from East India Company in 1858. Now Viceroy was appointed, who is directly answerable to British parliament. In army, the ratio of British officers to natives increased so as total control to be rests with British Officers. Sepoy has become a derogatory term in Irish english language.
a year ago