P BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP 13 GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES
P BLOCK ELEMENTS Groups13 141516 17 18 2 He 10 15 16 17 18 13 Al 31 Ga 49 In 81 Ti 14 34 35 36 32 Ge 50 53 54 51 Sb 83 Bi 52 Te 84 82 Pb 85 At 86 Rn Metals Metalloids Non-Metals
Group 13: The Boron Family The boron family contains elements in group 13 of the periodic table and include the semi-metal boron (B) and the and thallium (Tl). Aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium have three electrons in their outermost shell (a full s orbital and one electron in the p orbital) with the valence electron configuration ns2np1. metals aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), Corthscon ouxite Nstofou boron,i hen heate Atomic numberElectronic configuration Element Boron (B) Aluminium (AI) Gallium(Ga) Indium (n) Thallium (TI) IHel 2s,2p 13 31 49 81 [Nel 3s2, 3p [Arl 3d10, 4s2 4p1 [Krl 4d10, 5s25p1
The boron family contains the semi-metal boron (B) and metals aluminum (AI), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (TI) Properties and Periodic These elements are folrends Group 13 (XIII) of the p block in the Periodic Table of Elements. Aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium are metallic. They each have three electrons in their outermost shell (a full s orbital and one electron in the p orbital) with the valence electron configuration ns2np1. The boron family adopts oxidation states +3 or +1. The +3 oxidation states are favorable except for the heavier elements, such as Tl, which prefer the +1 oxidation state due to its stability; this is known as the inert pair effect. The elements generally follow periodic trends except for certain Tl deviations: Atomic radius increases down the group (Tl has the largest atomic radius.) "Electrode potential increases down the group (reactivity decreases down the group) *Ionization Energy decreases going down the group (because the electrons are farther from the core and therefore are easier to remove; Tl does not fit this trend)*
Aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium all form a range of compounds in the +3 oxidation state and compounds in the +1 oxidation state become progressively more stable down group IIIA The oxides of aluminum and gallium are amphoteric and indium and thallium oxides are more basic. The octahedral aqua-ions [M(OH2)6]3+ are acidic and the pKa values for the equillibria: [M(OH2)6]3+ [M(OH2)5(OH)12+ H+ are Al, 5; Ga, 3; In, ~4; Tl, 1; showing the A13+ aquo-ion is the least acidic and the T13+ ion the most acidic. The MX3 compounds are Lewis acids and Lewis acid strengths decrease in the order: Al > Ga > In The stability of the hydrides decreases down the group and there are no stable Tl-H compounds. Extraordinary precautions are required to exclude air and moisture in order to isolate Ga2H6. Aluminum is resistant to corrosion because of an impermeable oxide layer, but is soluble in non-oxidizing mineral acids. Gallium, indium, and thallium dissolve readily in acids, but thallium dissolves slowly in H2SO4 and HC
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