CLASS X-SOCIAL SCIENCE SUMMARY TARGET STUDENTS UPSC ASPIRANTS SSC ASPIRANTS
Political Science Gender Religion and Caste
e 1. In the previous chapter, we noted that the existence of social diversity does not threaten democracy 2. In this chapter, we apply this idea to the practice of democracy in India 3. We look at three kinds of social differences that can take the form of social divisions and inequalities. . 4. These are social differences based on gender, religion and caste
. 1. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is 2. This is reflected in a SEXUAL DIVISIONS OF LABOUR in most families: women do 3. When these jobs are paid for, men are ready to take up these works. Most tailors 4. In urban areas, poor women work as a domestic helper in middle-class homes, Public/private divisions: housework and bringing up children. all work inside the home. or cooks in hotels are men. while middle-class women work in offices. 5. The result of this division of labour is that although women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life, especially politics, is minimal in most societies. 6. Women in different parts of the world organised and agitated for equal rights. . 7. More radical women's movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well..
8. We now find women working as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, managers and college and university teachers which were earlier not considered suitable for women. 9. In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high 10. In our country, women still lag much behind men despite some improvement since independence. 11. Ours is still a male-dominated, PATRIARCHAL society. 12. Women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways a) The literacy rate among women is only 54% compared with 76% of them. b) On an average Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day. Yet much of her work is not paid and therefore often not valued. .
Women's political representation: not given adequate attention representatives. been very low. has never reached even 10% of its total strength. a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister 1. Yet issues related to women's well being or otherwise are 2. One way to ensure this is to have more women as elected e 3. In India, the proportion of women in the legislature has 4. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha . 5. In the government, cabinets are largely all male even when
e 6. One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India 7. There is more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies. 8. Women's organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women
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