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Fundamental Right to Equality (in Hindi)
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Here Navdeep Kaur is discussing fundamental right to equality

Navdeep Kaur is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Navdeep Kaur
NET qualified with over 6 years of teaching experience. JRF Awardee & Expert in NTA UGC NET.

U
Unacademy user
mem I am new on this channel I am a student of political science.kya ap mere se kch der ke liye personally bat kr skti h .study kaise Kru kha se pdhu so confused plg help me iam so poor girl I can't afford so expensive coaching plg help me
Dheeraj bahot
5 months ago
8448977908
Dheeraj bahot
5 months ago
8448977908
Please provide the new syllabus and exam pattern for CBSE NET EXAM in POLITICAL SCIENCE.
Please provide the brief introduction for new exam pattern CBSE NET in POLITICAL SCIENCE.
mam pls help still facing problem vd dI kindly add some more videos related to di.. concept is still not cleared mam pls help
Mam I m pursuing m. A mam pls provide paper 2 hindi
  1. Fundamental Rights in India Right toArticle 14 :- Equality before law and equal protection of law Equality Article 15 :- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article 16 :- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (OBC, ST, SC are not under this) Article 17 :- End of untouchability Article 18 :- Abolition of titles 3I Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted (condition person will not use it with his or her name)


  2. RIGHT TO FREEDOM 19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech Protection in respect of conviction for offences 31 leit Protection of life & personal liberty TUT 3 FaaT Right to Education 6 14 ay RT&TT Protection against arrest & detention in certain areas 20 21 21A


  3. Right to Article 19 :-It guarantees the citizens of India the following six Freedom fundamentals freedoms: 1. Freedom of Speech and Expression 2. Freedom of Assembly 3. Freedom of form Associations 4. Freedom of Movement 5. Freedom of Residence and Settlement 6. Freedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and Business Article 20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences Article 21 Protection of life and personal liberty Article 21A: On 2 April 2010 The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A Right to education Article 22:- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases


  4. RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION 23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings & forced labour HET ZETTTR 3 24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc., TET aT0 RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION 25 Freedom of conscience & free profession, practice & propagation of religion Freedom to manage religious affairs erf FaART Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion 26 27 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions RET 2T3it 3 FRTH 28


  5. Right Against . Article 23:- Traffic in human beings prohibited ExploitationArticle 24 No child below the age of 14 can be employed Right to Article 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion Article 26:- Freedom to manage religious affairs Article 27:- Prohibits taxes on religious grounds Article 28:- Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions freedom of Religion


  6. CULTURAL & EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS 29 Protection of interests of minorities 3RTHER 31 30 Right of minorities to establish & administer educational institutions f?TAT HF2T3it RTNET 3 FRTH SAVING OF CERTAIN LAWS Omitted 44th amdmt 31A Omitted Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates etc. 318 omitted Validation of certain Acts & Regulations 31c omitted Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles


  7. Cultural and. Article 29 :- Protection of interests of minorities Educational Article 30:- Right of minorities to establish and Rights administer educational institutions Article 31 :- Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act now Right to property is legal right not fundamental right Right to Constitutional Remedies The right to move the Supreme Court in Article 32 case of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by BR Ambedkar) :- . Forms of Writ checlk Habeas Corpus Equality before law and equal protection of law


  8. Article 31 with sub heading "Right to Property" has been omitted by the Constitution 44th Amendment Act, 1978. So, Article 31(1) has been shifted to article 300A as a replacement insertion in Chapter IV partially XIl of the Constitution. Thus if a legislature makes a law depriving a person of his property, there would be no obligation on the part of the State to pay anything as compensation. The aggrieved person shall have no right to move the court under Article 32


  9. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES 32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this part Article 32 was called the "soul of the constitution and very heart of it" by Dr. Ambedkar. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this part in their application to forces etc., Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this part Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws 34 35


  10. THE WRITS For enforcement of fundamental rights, the judiciary has been armed with the power to issue the writs. The power to issue these writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights is given by the Constitution to the Supreme Court {Ref.: Art. 32) and High Courts fRef. : Art. 226). Supreme Court has the power to issue writs only for the purpose of enforcement of the Fundamental Rights whereas under Art. 226 a High Court can issue writs for the purpose of enforcement of Fundamental Rights and lor for the redress of any other injury or illegality. *Supreme Court can issue a writ against any person or Government within the territory of India, while High Court can issue a writ against a person, Government or other authority only if they are located within the territorial jurisdiction of the High Court


  11. Writs filed against state Supreme court Fundamental rights violated Article 32 High court Fundamental rights + other legal right violated Article 226


  12. Writs in brief Type of Writ Meaning of Purpose of issue the word Habeas Corpus You may have the body To release a person who has been detained unlawfully whether in prison or in private custody. 3a Can be filed against public/ private individual To secure the performance of public duties by lower court, tribunal or public authority. Do your legal duty, only applied to Govt official Mandamus We Command to work but officer rejected without any reason


  13. Article 33: Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application etc Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to, (a) the members of the Armed Forces; or (b) the members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order; or (c) persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the State for purposes of intelligence or counterintelligence; or (d) persons employed in, or in connection with, the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation referred to in clauses (a) to (c), be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them


  14. IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY Definition Application of the principles contained in this part State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state Equal justice & free legal aid 36 37 38 39 39A


  15. There are 10 fundamental duties listed under Article 51A, Part IV-A of the Constitution of India, which are: To oblige with the Indian Constitution and respect the National Anthem and Flag. To cherish and follow the noble ideas that inspired the national struggle for freedom. To protect the integrity, sovereignty and unity of India. To defend the country and perform national services if and when the country requires. To promote the spirit of harmony and brotherhood amongst all people of India and renounce any practices that are derogatory to women. . . . . . To cherish and preserve the rich national heritage of our composite culture. To protect and improve the natural environment including lakes, wildlife, rivers, forests, etc. To develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry .


  16. To safeguard all public property . To strive towards excellence in all genres of individual and collective activities Another fundamental duty was added in 2002 by way of 86th amendment in the constitution. So to answer the question how many fundamental duties are there? There are now 11 fundamental duties are there and the 11th fundamental duty added is: IS. . To provide opportunities of education to the children between 6-14 years of age and parents to ensure that such opportunities are being awarded to their child


  17. HAP EXE 52 53 54 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 The President of India a R TET Executive power of the union H TZTTfATT Election of President aie Method of election of president TR afup Term of office of President TRT Tafe Eligibility for re-election gato aAM Ru Far Qualifications for election as presidena aTEGIT Conditions of President's office TRT Oath or affirmation by the President TRT( Procedure for impeachment of the President TRT 36 T Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office TRT 63 The Vice-President of India a R 3TIET 64 The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman of the council of states 3 TSZTf 7RRF


  18. Eligibility Conditions: (58) In order to contest for Indian Presidency, a person must 1. be a citizen of India 2. have completed 35 years of age 3. be eligible election to the Lok sabha 4. not hold any office of profit under the Government of India or any State Government or under any local or other authority subject to the control of Central/State Governments. However, the sitting President or the State Governor and presidential elections > the Vice-President, a Minister at the Centre or in states are eligible to contest for


  19. Impeachment (Art. 61): Impeachment is a semi-judicial procedure to remove the President of India. The President of India can be removed from office on one ground only i.e. violation of Constitution. The parliament may initiate a motion of impeachment in either House, which is then investigated by the other House. 1. A resolution of impeachment must be moved at least after 14 days of written notice, signed by at least one-fourths of the total members of that House. 2. The resolution is then discussed is passed by at least two-thirds of the total membership of the House. The President has the right to defend himself during such investigations.


  20. Powers, Privileges, Duties The Constitution says that the all the executive powers of the Union (53) are vested in the President, making him the Head of the Indian State 1. The executive powers are exercisable by the President, in accordance with the advice of his Council of Ministers (Art 74) 2. However, the President may send back any Cabinet resolution, asking the Cabinet to reconsider it. But if the resolution again comes back to him for his assent, it is obligatory for him to sign it.


  21. Different Powers: A. Administrative Powers: The Indian President remains the formal Head of the Union Administration and as such, all executive functions of the Union are expressed to be taken in his name. Further, all officers of the Union shall be subordinate to him and "He wil have a right to be informed of the affairs of the Union". (Art 78) The administrative power includes the power to appoint and remove certain high dignitaries of the State.


  22. The President enjoys the power to appoint 1. The Prime Minister 2. Other Central Ministers on PM's advice 3. The Attorney-General of India 4. The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India 5. Supreme Court Judges including the CJI 6. High Court Judges including the Chief Justice 7. The Governor of a State 8. The Finance Commission


  23. B. Military Powers: The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces in India and as such, has the right to declare war or peace with any country However, such powers are subject to parliamentary control. C. Diplomatic Powers: The task of negotiating international treaties and agreements belongs to the President, who acts according to ministerial advice in such matters. This again is subject to ratification by the Parliament.


  24. The Lok - Sabha can be dissolved before the expiry of its normal five year term by: (A) The Prime Minister (B) The Speaker of Lok Sabha (C) The President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (D) None of the above Answer C


  25. Veto power of the President: A bill passed by the Parliament can become an act only if it receives the assent of the President. However, the President has the veto power over the bills passed by the Parliament, i.e. he can withhold his assent to the bills. Absolute Veto: It refers to the power of the President to withhold his assent to a bill passed by the Parliament. 23. "Pocket Veto": he may keep the Bill in his pocket for an indefinite time. An example in this regard is Mr. Zail Singh's, who kept the Postal Amendment Bill with him and it lapsed without his approval once he retired from office.


  26. Suspensive Veto: The President exercises this veto when he returns a bill for reconsideration of the Parliament. However, if the bill is passed again by the Parliament with or without amendments and again presented to the President, it is obligatory for the President to give his assent to the bill. The President does not possess this veto in the case of money bills.


  27. Miscellaneous Powers: 1. Power to draw up and notify (T the lists of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for each state separately and UTs. 2. To refer any matter to the Supreme Court for its advice


  28. Note: When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees lapse


  29. National emergency under article 352 National emergency can be declared on the basis of external aggression or armed rebellion in the whole of India or a part of its territory. Such an emergency was declared in India in 1962 (China war), 1971 (Pakistan war), and 1975 (declared by Indira Gandhi). The President can declare such an emergency only on the basis of a written request by the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. Such a proclamation must be laid before both houses of Parliament, and the state of emergency expires after one month unless approved within that time by both houses sitting and voting separately. However, if the Lok Sabha (the lower house) is not in session when the state of emergency is declared, and the Rajya Sabha approves of the state of emergency, the deadline for the Lok Sabha is extended until thirty days after that house convenes.


  30. During a national emergency, many Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens can be suspended. The six freedoms under Right to Freedom are automatically suspended. By contrast, the Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended according to the original Constitution. In January 1977, during the emergency declared controversially by Indira Gandhi, the government decided to suspend even the Right to Life and Personal Liberty by dispensing with Habeas corpus. Justice Hans Raj Khanna defended the Right to Life and asked: "Life is also mentioned in Article 21 and would Government argument extend to it also?". The Attorney General observed: "Even if life was taken away illegally, courts are helpless"


  31. If the President is satisfied, based on the report of the Governor of the concerned state or from other sources, that the governance in a state cannot be carried out according to the provisions in the Constitution, he may declare an emergency in the state. Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within a period of two months.


  32. During such an emergency, the President can take over the entire work of the executive, and the Governor administers the state in the name of the President. the Legislative Assembly can be dissolved or may remain in suspended animation. The Parliament makes laws on the 66 subjects of the state list. All money bills have to be referred to the Parliament for approval. In this occasion ministers of state legislature do not perform actions in state. It has been applied more than 106 times till date.


  33. In case of a financial emergency, the President can reduce the salaries of all government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts. All money bills passed by the State legislatures are submitted to the President for his approval. He can direct the state to observe certain principles (economy measures) relating to financial matters; but fundamental rights cannot be suspended. Such an emergency has never been imposed so far


  34. Prime Minister of India- Real executive authority The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the President of India and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India the Lok Sabha (Council of the States) and the Rajya Sabha (House of the People)-but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha


  35. The President is the head of the State (head of union cabinate) while Prime Minister is the head of the government. Appointment of the Prime Minister Article 75 says that the Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. The President appoints the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha as the Prime Minister. But, when no party has a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, then the President may exercise his personal discretion in the selection and appointment of the Prime Minister.


  36. Term The term of the Prime Minister is not fixed and he holds office during the pleasure of the President. So long as the Prime Minister enjoys the majority support in the Lok Sabha, he cannot be dismissed by the President. However, if he loses the confidence of the Lok Sabha, he must resign or the President can dismiss him.