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Food Processing and Related Industries Lesson1
In this Lessorn o Fisheries
India has around 7500 km of coastline, one of the largest in the world. It also has millions of hectares of tanks, ponds, rives, EEZ, rivers, brackish waters etc. India is also home to more that 10% of the global biodiversity in terms of fish and shellfish species Indian fisheries sector constitutes about 6.3% of the global fish production The sector contributes to 1.1% of the GDP and 5.15% of the agricultural GDP The total fish production of 10.07 million metric tonnes presently has nearly 65% contribution from the inland fisheries . . . .
According to FAO, the fishing industry in India employs over 14 million people . Indian fisheries and aquaculture is an important sector of food production . t contributes to nutritional security to the food basket It contributes to agricultural exports and foreign earnings
Issues Overfishing and unsustainable fishing practices such as trawling has damaged aquatic life to a large extent specifically in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu Fishermen use fine-sized net due to which juvenile fishes are being caught. Fishermen don't have specialised equipment required for deep water fishing Fish feed has become costly Highly unregulated and informal supply chain Fishery laws are left up to the communities to interpret without any enforcement. e * . * . .
A majority of the fishing community suffers from debt-ridden issues and poverty due to negligible earnings There is lack of surveillance of our marine waters which has led to illegal fishing in Indian waters by people of nearby countries. Many fishing vessels don't have the facility to freeze fish on board which leads to quality deterioration There is inadequate awareness about nutritional benefits of fish. Indian consumers prefer fresh fish compared to tinned or canned fish. Sales of fish is mostly restricted to coastal States only. In supermarkets, the labelling does not provide enough information regarding the sourcing of the fish. . . . .
There is lack of private investment in infrastructure facilities such as cold storage chains. Even retailers are unable to sell processed fish due to lack of cooling facilities. There is low value addition. We only export frozen fishes, instead of improving its value by canning, pickling or smoking Our fish exports are usually rejected due to presence of heavy metals and antibiotics, foul smell etc. WHO has prescribed per capita consumption of 11kgs, but in India the figure stands only at 8kgs. . . .
Solutions Urgent need to encourage Sustainable fishing practices Ashtamudi fishing community, Kerala have successfully helped in replenishing stocks thus maintaining an aquatic balance, resulting in a steady catch of 10,000 tonne annually. They have achieved the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) 'Blue Label Certification', which certifies that their fishery uses sustainable methods of fishing. The Sindhudurg community in Maharashtra too is moving towards sustainable fishing practices This must be adoped by all fishing communities in India.
Using technology such as OceanSat 2 and Fisherman Friend App can help fishing communities by generating awareness about presence of fish stocks. . . National Mission for Protein Supplement has been introduced to encourage animal based protein in India. . National Fisheries development Board has been established to promote aquaculture, marketing of fish products and provide skills and training to people employed in this sector . Several legislations and policies such as National inland fisheries and aquaculture policy 2016, Marine Fishing Policy, 2004 etc have also been rolled out.
Realizing the immense scope for development of fisheries and aquaculture, the Government of India has restructured the Central Plan Scheme under an umbrella of Blue Revolution It is being implemented in consultation with all States & UTs. . It aims to achieve economic prosperity of fishermen and fish farmers, doubling their income It also aims to contribute towards food and nutritional security through optimum utilization of water resources for fisheries development
The scheme has the following components National Fisheries NFDB) and its activities. Development of Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture. Development of Marine Fisheries, Infrastructure and Post-Harvest Operations. Strengthening of Database & GIS of the Fisheries Sector Institutional Arrangement for Fisheries Sector Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) and other need-based Interventions . Development Board . . . . . National Scheme on Welfare of Fishermen.