ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND RELATED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
1971: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat "Ramsar Convention")
WETLANDS The Ramsar Convention
. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e. to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value . The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem. The treaty was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and the Convention's member countries cover all geographic regions of the planet. The Convention uses a broad definition of the types of wetlands covered in its mission, including lakes and rivers, swamps and marshes, wet grasslands and peat lands, oases, estuaries, deltas and tidal flats, near-shore marine areas, mangroves and coral reefs, and human-made sites such as fish ponds, rice paddies, reservoirs, and salt pans.
1972: Stoc khon- . The United Nations Conference on the human environment held at Stockholm on 5th and 6th June 1972, generally called as the Stockholm Conference, was the first declaration of international protection of the environment. . In the conference, 113 States, including India, participated and accepted the declaration. The Stockholm Declaration contains 26 principles. These principles provide the basis of an International Policy for the Protection and improvement of the environment. The United Nations Environment Programme has been established by the United Nations General Assembly in pursuance of the Stockholm Conference. The UNEP worked as catalyst stimulator and coordinator among the member states on the environmental action.
. 1973: Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild flora and fauna (CITES)
The Conference aimed to control or prevent international commercial trade in endangered species or products derived from them . The Convention did not seek to directly protect endangered species, rather it aimed to reduce the economic incentive to poach endangered species and destroy their habitat by closing off the international market.
982: Nairobl Deeluretiorm The Nairobi Declaration was adopted at Nairobi for celebrating the 10th Anniversary of the Stockholm conference on human Environment in 1972. The Declaration envisaged the creation of a special commission to frame long term environment strategies for achieving sustainable developments upto the year 2000 and beyond. . The Declaration was endorsed by the governing Council of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1987.
985: Vienna conve tion for t of ozone fayer The Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985. It became an important legal basis for taking international action to protect the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer. Among the objectives set out in the Convention is for Parties to promote cooperation by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange on the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and to adopt legislative or administrative measures against activities likely to have adverse effects on the ozone layer.
1987: Montreal Proto cul . that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing fluorine-only do not harm the ozone layer). . The treaty was opened for signature in 1987 and entered into force in 1989. Since then, it has undergone five revisions, in 1990 (London), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing) . In a major innovation the protocol recognized that all nations should not be treated equally. The agreement acknowledges that certain countries have contributed to ozone depletion more than others. It also recognizes that a nation's obligation to reduce current emissions should reflect its technological and financial ability to do so.
1987our Commo Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development ("Brundtland Report") The concept of 'sustainable development' was crystallized in the 1987 report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development The Brundtland Commission which drew upon long established lines of thought that had developed substantially over the previous 20 years. . The Brundtland Commission's characterization of 'sustainable development' is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The prominence given to 'needs' reflects a concern to eradicate poverty and meet basic human needs, broadly understood. The concept of sustainable development focused attention on finding strategies to promote economic and social development in ways that avoided environmental degradation, over-exploitation or pollution, and sidelined less productive debates about whether to prioritize development or the environment
1992: Agenda 24 Agenda 21 is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organisations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans affect the environment. The number 21 refers to the 21st century. . The full text of Agenda 21 was revealed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED / "Earth Summit"), held in Rio de Janeiro on 14 June 1992 where 179 governments voted to adopt the program. The implementation of Agenda 21 was intended to involve action at international national, regional and local levels. In 1997, the General Assembly of the UN held a special session to appraise five years of progress on the implementation of Agenda 21 (+5). The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) affirmed UN commitment to 'full implementation' of Agenda 21, alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other international agreements.
1992: Convention The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty that was adopted at the Earth Summit in 1992. The Convention has three main goals: 1. Conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity); 2. Sustainable use of its components; 3. Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources. In other words, its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. The convention recognized for the first time in international law that the conservation of biological diversity is "a common concern of humankind" and is an integral part of the development process. The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources.
By 2008-2012, Annex 1 countries have to reduce their GHG emissions by an average of 5% below their 1990 levels (for many countries, such as the EU member states, this corresponds to some 15% below their expected GHG emissions in 2008). While the average emissions reduction is 5%, national targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union to a 10% emissions increase for Iceland. Reduction targets expired in 2013. Kyoto Protocol includes "flexible mechanisms" which allow Annex 1 economies to meet their GHG targets by purchasing GHG emission reductions from elsewhere. These can be bought either from financial exchanges (International Emissions Trading Scheme) or from projects which reduce emissions in nonAnnex 1 economies under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), or in other Annex-1 countries under the Joint Implementation (JI)
2000: The Cartagena Prot Biosafety ("Cartagena Protoco . The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11 September 2003. It establishes an advance informed agreement (AlA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol
2001 Convention Potlutants ("Stockholm Conventionu The Stockholm Convention is an international legally binding agreement on persistent organic pollutants. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. . Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio magnify in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) and the International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) prepared a list, known as the Dirty Dozen, including eight organochlorine pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphene; two industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) group; and two groups of industrial by-products: dioxins and furans . The convention entered into force in 2004. Cosignatories agree to outlaw nine of the "dirty dozen" chemicals, limit the use of DDT to malaria control, and curtail inadvertent production of dioxins and furans.
2010:"the Nagoya Prot . on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity ('Nagoya Protocol') It is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components . It was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources is one of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. . The Strategic Plan consists of 20 new biodiversity targets for 2020, termed the 'Aichi Biodiversity Targets4'. Official decisions on an indicator set to measure progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets will help cement the role the Partnership will play in supporting the CBD
At COP13 in Ba The Bali Road Map was adopted at the 13th Conference of the Parties and the 3rd Meeting of the Parties in December 2007 in Bali. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating process designed to tackle climate change. . The Bali Action Plan aimed at (i) shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions, (ii) enhanced national/ international action on mitigation of climate change, (iii) enhanced action on adaptation, (iv) enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation, & (v) enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation. There was a strong consensus for updated changes for both developed and developing countries. Although there were not specific numbers agreed upon in order to cut emissions, the Decision recognized that there was a need for "deep cuts in global emissions" (plural countries proposed 100% reduction in 2050) and that "developed country emissions must fall 10-40% by 2020"
At COR16 in Cane un (20 The agreements encompassed finance, technology and capacity-building support to help such countries meet urgent needs to adapt to climate change, and to speed up their plans to adopt sustainable paths to low emission economies that could also resist the negative impacts of climate change. 5 The Cancun Agreements main objectives covered Mitigation plans to establish clear goals and a timely schedule for reducing human-generated greenhouse gas emissions over time to keep the global average temperature rise below two degrees It aimed at promoting transparency of actions and use of technology to boost efforts to address climate change. It also aimed to set up the Green Climate Fund5 to provide support to developing countries to assist them in mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts.
. The summit gave due consideration to International financial institutions and United Nations operational activities at regional, national, sub national and local levels. . The framework for action included poverty eradication, food security and nutrition and sustainable agriculture, water and sanitation, energy, sustainable transport, sustainable cities and human settlements, human health and promoting full and productive employment, decent work for all and social protection. It also emphasized on climate change, forest protection, and conservation of biodiversity, land degradation, sustainable consumption, gender equality and women empowerment. 6 0
Ecology Related Legislations in India
. Considering the complexity in terms of conservation of biodiversity, sustainability of the natural ecosystems and the livelihooo dependence of the local communities, the government needs to address national and global issues related to carbon accumulation, biodiversity conservation, and continued flow of ecosystem services. These measures provide opportunities for strengthening documentation and data collection; empowering local communities by recognizing responsibilities, ownerships, rights, and concessions; and creating suitable institutions. . The legislative provisions developed as a follow-up to such national policies are listed below:
Wildlife Protectio Amendrment Acts of 2003 1972 The act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and matters connected with them, with a view to ensure the ecological and environmental security of India. The act constitutes a National Board for Wildlife that provides guidelines for framing policies and advising Central and State Government on promotion of wildlife conservation and controlling poaching and illegal trade of wildlife and its products; Making recommendations for setting up and managing national parks, sanctuaries and other protected areas; and Suggesting measures for improvement of wildlife conservation. It also sets up National Tiger Conservation Authority. The acts sets up various provisions related to trade and penalties for hunting the animals in wild.
The government constitutes a Conservation Reserve Management Committee to manage and conserve the conservation reserve. . Community Reserves- The State Government can, in consultation with the community or an individual who have volunteered to conserve wildlife, declare any private or community land as community reserve. A Community Reserve Management Committee shall be constituted by State Government for conserving and managing the reserve. Tiger Reserve- These areas were reserved for protection tiger in the country. . The State Government on the recommendation of the Tiger Conservation Authority may notify an area as a tiger reserve, for which it has to prepare a Tiger Conservation Plan.
PROJECTS WHICH GOVERNMENT STARTED RECENTLY VARIOUS MISSIONS
National Wildlife Conservation Projects Last few decades have seen emergence of human encroachment to an extent that has never been seen before. This is one of the greatest threats to India's wildlife In order to overcome the result of human encroachment many national parks as well as protected areas have been established so far and the first came in 1935. Also in 1972, to protect the tiger and wildlife in India, the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard were enacted. The following are the major conservation projects ongoing in India:
PROJECT TIGER . Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project initiated in India to protect the Bengal Tigers. It was launched on April 1, 1973. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted tiger reserves representative of various bio- geographical regions throughout India. The project was based on a 'core-buffer strategy. 2 5 . The core areas were freed from all sorts of human activities and the buffer areas were subjected to 'conservation oriented land use'. Management plans were drawn up for each tiger reserve based on the principles of elimination of all forms of human exploitation and biotic disturbance from the core area and rationalization of activities in the buffer zone; restricting the habitat management only to repair the damages done to the eco-system by human and other interferences so as to facilitate recovery of the eco-system to its natural state; and monitoring the faunal and floral changes over time and carrying out research about wildlife. 9
ACTION PLAN FOR VULTUR CONSERVATIO IN IND India has nine species of vultures in the wild. These are the Oriental White-backed Vulture (Gypsbengalensis), Slender billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris), Long billed Vulture (Gyps indicus), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Red Headed Vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), Indian ffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus), Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis), Cinereous Vulture (Aegypius monachus) and Bearded Vulture or Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus). The population of three species i.e. White-backed Vulture, Slender billed Vulture and Long billed Vulture in the wild has declined drastically over the past decade. The decline of Gypsgenus in India has been put at 97% by 2005. Because of the evidence of widespread and rapid population decline, all three vulture species were listed by IUCN, the World Conservation Union, in 2000 as 'Critically Endangered"
National Missis 1. National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. . The plan includes: Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments National Missions 1. National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes: .Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments;
3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plarn calls for: Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code; A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and Incentives for the use of public transportation.