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Electronegativity Electronegativity is the measure of the ability of an atom in a bond to attract electrons. Which atom would have a greater attraction for the electrons in this bond and why?
When two atoms form a bond their DIFFERENCE in electronegativity determines the bond type. A large difference in electronegativity means one atom will win the "tug of war" and take the electrons completely. This is an ionic bond.
When the electronegativity of two bonding atoms is very similar, neither atom wins the "tug of war" and the electrons are shared equally. This produces a covalent bond
Bond Polarity and Electronegativity .In a covalent bond, electrons are shared. .Equal sharing of electrons to form a covalent bond forms a nonpolar molecule. There are some covalent bonds in which the electrons are located closer to one atom than the other. Unequal sharing of electrons results in polar bonds.
Factors affecting electronegativity 1) Nuclear charge - more protons, stronger attraction between nucleus and bonding pair of electrons. 2) Atomic radius - closer to the nucleus, stronger attraction between nucleus and bonding pair of electrons. 3) Shielding less shells of electrons between the nucleus and the electrons, less shielding (less repulsion), stronger attraction between nucleus and bonding pair of electrons.
Periodic Trends in Electronegativity . electronegativity- tendency of an atom to attract electrons noble gases do not have electronegativity values chemical bonds are determined by electronegativity differences between the bonding partners
1IA 11A Periodic Table of the Elements 19 1014e IAIVA JA 5A 6A 7A 10 Li Be BCNOF Ne 20.1793 14 15 18 3 4 7 VIB Vill 118 4538 4B 58 7B 18 1920212223 2425262728293031 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga GeAs Se Br Kr Rb SrYZr Nb Mo TcRu Rh Pd Ag CdIn Sn Sb Te Xe Hf Ta W Au Hg T Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr RaRf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut FI Uup Lv Uus Uuo L041 40934 65 30 41 42 51 53 112411 14818 11871 57-7172 73 76 8283 12 327 5.04 3972 89-103 104 105 107 108 109 118 61 70 LanthenidLa Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 53 25 64 9303 17304 100 101102 103 Actirnie Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm BK Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Positive ions Positive ions are always smaller that the neutral atom. Loss of outer shell electrons. Na 186 pm Na+ 97 pm
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