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Electoral Reforms Part-2
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Jatin Verma is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Jatin Verma
Have appeared in UPSC CSE thrice. Have been taking Unacademy Plus courses Academics- Polity, Economics & Current Affairs.

U
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Sir, Kindly let us know the bibliography of the content, which will help us to learn more and more :) thank you
Priyanshi, for Alexander you can check "The Conquests of Alexander the Great" by Waldemar Heckel. For the Mauryas, try "Ashoka" by Charles Allen or Romila Thapar's "Ashoka and the Decline of the Mauryas", and for China, "China: A History" by John Keay is great. Cheers!
Priyanshi Jajoo
2 years ago
Thank you so much :)
sir there is no part 1 ..plz see to the matter
P
sir post the important article to be read from the hindu on telegram
sir plz say...where is first part
sir can you upload pdf of these entire series
  1. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 52 POLITICAL PARTIES unacademy


  2. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 53 . According to certain criteria, set by the Election Commission regarding the length of political activity and success in elections, parties are categorised by the Commission as National or State parties, or simply put, registered- unrecognised parties. . How a party is classified determines a party's right to certain privileges, such as access to electoral rolls and provision of time for political broadcasts on the state-owned television and radio stations All India Radio and Doordarshan - and also the important question of the allocation of the party symbol . Party symbols enable illiterate voters to identify the candidate of the party . National parties are given a symbol that is for their use only, throughout the . State parties have the sole use of a symbol in the state in which they are they wish to vote for. country nistil suech recitetsl uoleceosunisd nartis recognised as such Registered-unrecognised parties can choose a symbol from a selection of 'free' svmbols.


  3. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 54 Conditions for recognition as a National Party A political party shall be eligible to be recognized as National party, if, and only if, any of the following conditions is fulfilled: (i) The candidates set up by the party, in any four or more States, at the last general election to the House of the People, or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned - have secured not less than six percent of the total valid votes polled in each of those States at that general election; and - in addition, it has returned at least four members to the House of the People at the aforesaid last general election from any State or States; or (ii) At the last general election to the House of the People. - the party has won at least two percent of the total number of seats in the House of the People, any fraction exceeding half being counted as one; and - the party's candidates have been elected to that House from not less than three States; or (iii) The party is recognized as State party in at least four States.unacademy


  4. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Conditions for recognition as a State Party A political party shall be eligible for recognition as a State party in a State. if, and only if, any of the following conditions is fulfilled: (i) At the last general election to the Legislative Assembly ofthe State. the candidates set up by the party have secured not less than six percent of the total valid votes polled in the State; and in addition, the party has returned at least two members to the Legislative Assembly of that State at such general election; or (ii) At the last general election to the House of the People from that State. the candidates set up by the party have secured not less than six percent of the total valid votes polled in the State; and, - in addition, the party has returned at least one member to the House of the People from that State at such general election; or unacademy


  5. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 56 Conditions for recognition as a State Party (iii) At the last general election to the Legislative Assembly of the State, -the party has won at least three percent of the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, (any fraction exceeding half being counted as one), or at least three seats in the Assembly, whichever is more; or (iv) At the last general election to the House of the People from the State, the party has returned at least one member to the House of the People for every 25 members or any fraction thereof allotted to that State. (v) At a General Election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, the party has polled 8% of votes in a State unacademy


  6. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 57 German law on Political Parties . Our Constitution does not provide for the constitution and working of the political parties, though they are at the heart of a parliamentary democracy . Article 21 of the German Constitution (Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949), which Constitution was also enacted almost simultaneously with our Constitution, provides for the establishment and working of the political parties. 170th Report ofthe Law commission of India recommended amending the Representation of People Act, 1951 to include a section on organisation of political parties on the lines of those in the German Constitution. unacademy


  7. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 58 Article 21 of the German Constitution (1) The parties shall help form the political will of the people. They may be freely established. Their internal organisation shall conform to democratic principles. They shall publicly account for the sources and use of their funds and for their assets, (2) Parties which by reason of their aims or the conduct of their adherents seek to impair or do away with the free democratic basic order of threaten the existence of the Federal Republic of Germany shall be unconstitutional The Federal Constitutional Court shall rule on the question of unconstitutionalitv, (3) Details shall be the subject of federal laws." . Pursuant to article 21(3), the German Parliament has enacted the Law on Political Parties' in the year 1967, which has been amended from time to time. unacademy


  8. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 59 Law on German Political Parties Article 1. Constitutional Status and Functions of the Parties The parties shall participate in the formation ofthe political will of the people in all fields of public life . The parties shall define their aims in the form of political manifestos. The parties shall use their funds exclusively for the fulfilment of their obligations under the Basic Law and this Law Article 2 defines the expression "Political Party" Article 3 empowers the political parties to institute legal proceedings in their own name and similarly be sued in their own name . Article 4 provides that the name of a party must be clearly distinguishable from that of other existing parties and that this rule is also applicable to acronyms. In election campaigns and the elections, only the registered name or acronyn may be used . Article 5 provides for equal treatment ofall the political parties. unacadem


  9. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 60 Law on German Political Parties . Article 6 contains the provisions that should contain in the statutes and programmes of political parties. . Article 7 deals with the organisation ofpolitical parties both at the national and regional level . Article 8 provides that the members' meeting and the executive committee shall constitute the essential organs of the party and its regional organisations and for other allied matters. delegates assemblies and the rights of the members in that behalf. rejection and disciplinary action of members. . Article 9 provides for constitution of members' assemblies and . Article 10 empowers the political parties to decide on the admission, unacademy


  10. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 61 Law on German Political Parties Article 11 provides that every political party shall elect an executive committee at least every second calender vear and that the committee must consist of at least three members. It also deals with the powers of the executive committee and its duties. . Article 12 provides for constitution of general party committees and other incidental matters. . Article 13 provides for composition of delegates' assemblies. . Article 14 provides for arbitration in case of a dispute between the members or between the party and members or between the party ad regional organisations, as the case may be. . Article 15 deals with the process of decision-making in party organsmy


  11. . Page 1+10: Parties call for Hybrid poll system. The Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice is deliberating on electoral reforms in the aftermath of UP election results. The objective is to have a more direct relationship between vote % and seats% from the Party List system. The Congress, NCP, the CPI (Marxist) and CPI have told that the existing first-past-the-post- system needs to be replaced with a hybrid format where elections for a small number of seats are through Proportional representation. What facts and figures say? In the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections held in March this year where the BJP which got 39 per cent of the vote share but won 312 seats, while the Samajwadi Party with 21.8 per cent votes got 47 seats and the Bahujan Samaj Party with 22.2 per cent got 19 seats. . In 2009 elections BJPhad 18.1% vote but 116 seats in the Lok Sabha. While, in the last general elections the Congress got 19.35% votes but only 44 seats. Parties together polling almost 50% ofthe votes are totally excluded. An interesting fact is that no ruling party had ever got 51 per cent of the votes polled. "Minority democracy" has been ruling the country since independence .


  12. Four Systems of Elections being discussed by the Committee: [ii] Proportional Representation [iii] Hybrid Systemm [iv] Dual System . Recommendations of the Law Commission's 170th and 255th report: Amix of both first- past-the-post and proportional representation should be tried. Both the reports have suggested that 25% or 1 36 more seats should be added to the present Lok Sabha and be filled by Proportional Representation Q. which one of the following countries are 75 per cent of seats in both Houses of Parliament filled oh the basis of first-past-the-post system and 25 per cent on the basis of Proportional Representation system? [UPSC-1997] A. Germany B. France C. Canada ussia


  13. Why did India adopt the FPTP system? 1. Proportional Representation is a complicated system which may work in a small country, but would be difficult to work in a sub-continental country like India. 2. Simplicity of FPTP: FPTP election system is extremely simple to understand even for common voters who may have no specialised 3. Voters have to simply endorse a candidate or a party while voting. Depending on the nature of actual politics, voters may either give greater importance to the party or to the candidate or balance the two. 4. The FPTP system offers voters a choice not simply between parties but specific candidates. In other electoral systems, especially. In constituency based system like the FPTP, the voters know who their own representative is and can hold him or her accountable. 5. FPTPis compatible with Parliamentary System: This system requires that the executive has majority in the legislature. PR system may not produce a clear majority because seats in the legislature would be divided on the basis of share of votes. It generally gives the largest party or coalition some extra bonus seats, more than their share of votes would allow. Thus this system makes it possible for parliamentary government to function smoothl;y and effectively by facilitating the formation of a stable government.


  14. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 71 170th Law Commission report . It has brought out the lacunas in our electoral process and recommended for a hybrid system wherein members to the Parliament and State Legislature are elected by the First Past the Post system as well as the List system. It proposed the following . Any political party, whether recognised or not, which obtains less than 5% of the total valid votes cast in the election to the House of the People/ State Legislature shall not be entitled to any seat in the House of the People / State Legislature. . Any constituency which has elected the candidate of a political party which is deprived of a seat in the House of People or in legislative Assembly on account of the above provision, as the case may be, shall be represented by the candidate of a political party which has obtained the next highest votes provided that his political party obtains 5% of the total valid votes cast in that election and that he has not lost the security deposit. unacademy


  15. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 72 Amendment of Article 81 . The House of the People shall consist of: . (a) not more than 530 members to be chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies in the States; (b) not more than 20 members to represent the Union territories chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide; and (c) not more than 138 members chosen according to the list system in such manner as Parliament mav by law provide, . Provided that the provisions of article 330 shall not apply to the election of the members to be chosen unacademy


  16. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 76 LAW COMMISSION OF INDIAREPORT NO 255 . A new Chapter IVC should be inserted dealing with internal democracy, party Constitutions, party organisation, internal elections, candidate selection, voting procedures, and the ECI's power to de- register a party in certain cases of non-compliance. It is clear that both the electoral systems come with their own merits and demerits -proportional representation theoretically being more representative, while the FPTP system being more stable It is also clear, from the experience of other countries that any changes in India's electoral system will have to follow a hybrid pattern combining elements of both direct and indirect elections. This, in turrn will necessitate an increase in the number of seats in the Lok Sabha, which raises concerns regarding its effective functioning. unacademy


  17. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved LAW COMMISSION OF INDIAREPORT NO 255 unacademy


  18. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 78 LAW COMMISSION OF INDIAREPORT NO 255 . As a result, the Law Commission recommends that the findings of the 170th Law Commission Report on the proportional system may be examined by the Government to determine whether its proposals can be made workable in India at present. The Law Commission recommends a suitable amendment to the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution, which shall have the effect of vesting the power to decide on questions of disqualification on the ground of defection with the President or the Governor, as the case may be, (instead of the Speaker or the Chairman), who shall act on the advice of the ECI. This would help preserve the integrity of the Speaker's office. unacademy


  19. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 79 LAW COMMISSION OF INDIAREPORT NO 255 The ECI should be strengthened by first, giving equal constitutional protection to all members of the Commission in matters of removability second, making the appointment process of the Election Commissioners and the CEC consultative; and third, creating a permanent, independent Secretariat for the ECI. . Publishing and abetting the publishing of 'paid news' for furthering the prospect of election of any candidate or for prejudicially affecting the prospects ofelection of any candidate to be considered an electoral offence with stringent punishment and likelihood of disqualification. . The ban on opinion polls to prevent the publication, publicity, or dissemination of any election matter by print or electronic media. unacademy


  20. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 81 LAW COMMISSION OF INDIAREPORT NO 255 Provisions for counting of votes of a group of EVMs taken together using Totaliser should be made The Commission recommends regulating and restricting government sponsored advertisements six months prior to the date of expiry of the House/Assembly to maintain the purity of elections; prevent the use of public money for partisan interests of, inter alia, highlighting the government's achievements; and ensure that the ruling party or candidate does not get an undue advantage over another in the spirit of free and fair elections. The Commission recommends that the law must be amended to provide that a person cannot contest from more than one constituency at a time for conduct and better management of elections, . Independent candidates be disbarred from contesting elections Use of common electoral rolls for all the elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and local bodies, unacademy


  21. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 83 ELECTORAL REFORMS PROPOSED BY EC, 2016 The Commission suggested that the law may be amended so that a person can be enrolled in the roll the day he or she turns 18. the Law Ministry suggested two qualifying dates i.e. 1st January and 1st July; to which the Commission agreed and requested the government to make amendments accordingly . The Commission proposes that making of any false statement or declaration before the Election Commission, Chief Electoral Officer, District Election Officer, Presiding Officer or any authority appointed under The Representation of the People Act, 1951, in connection with any electoral matter should be an electoral offence under the said Act along the lines of section 31 of The Representation of the People Act, 1950. . furnishing of false affidavit or suspension of material information in the affidavit should be punishable with 2 years' imprisonment without the alternative clause of fine, be made a ground for disqualification and specified as ground for challenging the election The Commission has proposed amendments in The Representation of People Act, 1951 and suggested dividing the seats in the Council of States and State Legislative Councils into three categories and specifying the term for each category in such a way that biennial retirement of 1/3rd of the members would be ensured. unacademy


  22. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 86 ELECTORAL REFORMS PROPOSED BY EC, 2016 .Persons charged with cognisable offences shall be de-barred from contesting in the elections, at the stage when the charges are framed by the competent court provided the offence is punishable by imprisonment of at least 5 years, and the case is filed at least 6 months prior to the election in question. Implement recommendations of the Report of the Liberhans Ayodhya Commission of Inquiry, in 2010, for action by the Election Commission against the parties which misuse religious sentiments. . Include bribery as a cognisable offence with minimum 2 years of Imprisonment. . The Election Commission of India should be given powers to de-register a political party should be authorised to issue necessary orders regulating registration and de-registration of political parties. unacademy


  23. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 87 ELECTORAL REFORMS PROPOSED BY EC, 2016 Provisions for exemption of Income Tax should be made applicable only to political parties that contest elections and win seat(s) in the Parliament or Legislative Assemblies . Maintenance, audit, publication of accounts by political parties, Declaration of contribution received by the political parties, Disclosure of contribution reports submitted by political parties. Accounting and auditing standards would help political parties to maintain uniformity in presentation of financial statements, proper disclosure and transparency of their accounts . The present Form 24A does not incorporate the contributions amounting to a sum below Rs 20.000/-. Form 24A needs to be amended by includinga column formentioning the total contributions received is amounts less than Rs. 20,000/-. This will be in the interest of transparency. . Anonymous contributions above or equal to the amount of Rupees two thousand should be prohibited The political parties should be mandated to register details of donors for coupons of all amounts unacademy


  24. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved ELECTORAL REFORMS PROPOSED BY EC, 2016 .Maintenance of separate bank accounts by each contesting candidate for meeting poll expenses should be made mandatory and any transaction above Rs 20,000 not done through dedicated bank account should be treated as not shown in books of accounts, Amount of financial assistance given to a candidate by a political party should not exceed the limit prescribed under section 77(3) of the f95 Act The ceiling on campaign expenditure made by political parties towards Parliamentary or Assembly elections should be provided. It should be either 50% of or not more than the expenditure ceiling limit provided for the candidate multiplied by the number of candidates of the party contesting the election . The number of star campaigners for bye-election may be limited to two. . A candidate contesting at an election should be required to maintain the accounts from the date of notification of the election till the date of declaration of result of the election. unacademy


  25. 91 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 11/29/18 NCRWC RECOMMENDATIONS ON ELECTORAL PROCESSES unacademy


  26. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 92 . A person chosen to be MP or MLA should not be charged with an offence punishable with imprisonment for 5 or more years. Persons convicted of heinous crimes like murder, rape, smuggling etc should be debarred from contesting elections. . Criminal cases against politicians pending before Courts either for trial or in appeal must be disposed off speedily, if necessary, by appointing Special Courts. . The election petitions should also be decided by special courts. In the alternative, special election benches may be constituted in the High Courts and earmarked exclusively for the disposal of election petitions and election disputes. unacademy


  27. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 97 UPSC UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION PART XIV- ARTICLES 315 - 323 unacademy


  28. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 98 Article-316.Appointment of members The Chairman and other members of a Union Public Service Commission shall be appointed by the President . Provided that as nearly as may be one-half of the members of every Public Service Commission shall be persons who at the dates of their respective appointments have held office for at least ten years either under the Government of India or under the Government of a State he duties of the Chairman shall be performed by one of the other members of the Commission appointed by the President if a. the office of the Chairman of the Commission becomes vacant b. any such Chairman is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office unacademy


  29. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article-317. Removal and suspension of a member The Chairman or any other member of a Union Public Service Commission shall only be removed from his office by order of the President on the ground of misbehaviour after the Supreme Court, on reference being made to it by the President, has, on inquiry, reported that the Chairman or such other member, as the case may be, ought on any such ground to be removed. The Chairman or any other member of a Union Public Service Commission shall be deemed to be guilty of misbehaviour If he is or becomes in any way concerned or interested in any contract or agreement made by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State or . participates in any way in the profit thereofor in any benefit or emolument arising therefrom otherwise than as a member and in common with the other members of an incorporated company . During the course of enquir, the President can suspend the Chairman or member of the UPSC unacademy


  30. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 104 Article-320. Functions of Union Public Service Commission to conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the Uniorn if requested by any two or more States so to do, to assist those States in framing and operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services for which candidates possessing special qualifications are required. UPSC shall be consulted on all matters relating to methods of recruitment to civil services and for civil posts; ii. on the principles to be followed in making appointments to civil services and posts and in making promotions and transfers from one service to another and on the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions or transfers; iii. iv. v. on all disciplinary matters affecting a person serving under the Government of India in a civil capacity, including memorials or petitions relating to such matters; unacademy


  31. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 106 Article-321. Power to extend functions of UPSC Additional functions may be conferred by the Parliament Article-322. Expenses of Union Public Service Commission . The expenses of the Union Public Service Commission, including any salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the members or staff of the Commission, shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India Article-323. The UPSC shall submit a report to the President which along with a memorandum explaining the cases where the advice of UPSC was not accepted and reasons thereof shall be laid before the Parliament. Report of Union Public Service Commission unacademy


  32. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 107 Limitations The UPSC is not consulted orn Reservations in appointment for backward classes . Claims of SC and ST in appointments . Selection for chairmanship or membership of tribunals, group C and group D services . Temporary appointments for less than a year unacademy


  33. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 108 SPSC STATE PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION PART XIV- ARTICLES 315 323 unacademy


  34. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved Article-317. Removal and suspension of a member . the President may by order remove from office the Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission if the Chairman or such other member, as the case may be, . is adjudged an insolvent; or engages during his term of office in any paid employment outside the duties of his office; or is, in the opinion of the President, unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body unacademy


  35. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 115 Article-320-Functions of State Public Service Commissions .to conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the State SPSC shall be consulted i. on all matters relating to methods of recruitment to civil services and ii. on the principles to be followed in making appointments to civil ii. in making promotions and transfers from one service to another and for civil posts; services and posts and on the suitability of candidates for such appointments, promotions or transfers; on all disciplinary matters affecting a person serving under the Government of state in a civil capacity, including memorials or petitions relating to such matters; iv. v. unacademy


  36. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 116 Article-320. Functions of State Public Service Commission vi any costs incurred by him in defending legal proceedings instituted against him in respect of acts done or purporting to be done in the execution of his duty should be paid out of the Consolidated Fund of state vii. on any claim for the award of a pension in respect of injuries sustained by a person in a civil capacity, and any question as to the amount of any such award Advice on any matter referred to the SPSC by the Governor The Governor may make regulations specifying the matters in which either generally, or in any particular class of case or in any particular circumstances where the SPSC shall not be consulted. . Such regulations shall be laid before the State Legislature for atleast 14 days and which can be amended or repealed by State Legislatureunacadem


  37. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 118 The SPSC is not consulted on Reservations in appointment for backward classes . Claims of SC and ST in appointments o the judicial services of the State other than the district judge. unacademy


  38. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 121 Composition and tenure The NCSC consists of a Chairperson, Vice-chairperson and three other members They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal Their conditions of service and tenure of office are also determined by the President unacademy


  39. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 123 Functions and Duties of the Commission to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards, . to make in such reports recommendations as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for the effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socio-economic development of the Scheduled Castes; and . to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the Scheduled Castes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by the rule spe cify unacademy


  40. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 126 NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR ST ARICLE 338-A unacademy


  41. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 128 Composition and tenure The NCST consists of a Chairperson, Vice-chairperson and three other members. seal by the President. each member is three years from the date of assumption of charge. and the Vice-Chairperson that of a Minister of State and other . They are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and . Their conditions of service and tenure of office are also determined . At present, the term of office of Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and . The Chairperson has been given the rank of Union Cabinet Minister, Members have the ranks of a Secretary to the Government of Indiademy


  42. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 131 Powers of the Commission The Commission shall have all the powers of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely: (a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; (c) receiving evidence on affidavits; (d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents; (f) any other matter which the President may, by rule, determine. The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major policy matters affecting Scheduled Tribes, unacademy


  43. 11/29/18 Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 135 . The office of special officer for Linguistic Minorities was created in 1957 and the special officer is designated commissioner for linguistic minorities. The Commissioner functions under the Ministry of Minority Affairs Minority Affairs . He submits reports to the President through the Union Minister for unacademy


  44. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 137 bjectives of the commissioner 1. To provide equal opportunities to the linguistic minorities for inclusive development and national integration 2. To spread awareness amongst the linguistic minorities about the safeguards available to them 3. To ensure effective implementation of the safeguards provided for the linguistic minorities in the Constitution and other safeguards, which are agreed to by the states /U.T.s 4. To handle the representations for redress of grievances related to the safeguards for linguistic minorities unacademy


  45. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 139 2017 . Consider the following statements: l. The Election Commission of india is a five-member body 2. Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections. 3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? A. 1 and 2 only B. 2 only C. 2 and 3 only D. 3 only unacademy


  46. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 140 2012 According to the Constitution of India, it is the duty of the President of India to cause to be laid before the Parliament which of the following? 1. The Recommendations of the Union Finance Commission 2. The Report of the Public Accounts Committee 3. The Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General 4. The Report of the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes Select the correct answer the using the codes given below: A. I only B. 2 and 4 only C. 1, 3 and 4 only D. 1, 2, 3 and 4 unacademy


  47. 19/2/2018 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 141 . Which one among the following Commissions was set up in pursuance of a definite provision under an Article of the Constitution of India? Select one: A. University Grants Commission B. Central Vigilance Commission C. National Human Rights Commission D. Election Commission unacademy


  48. 11/29/18 O Jatin Verma All Rights Reserved 142 2004 Consider the following tasks: 1. Superintendence, direction and conduct of free and fair elections. 2. Preparation of electoral rolls for all elections to the Parliament, State Legislatures and the Office of the President and the Vice President, 3. Giving recognition to political parties and allotting election symbols to political parties and individuals contesting the election. 4. Proclamation of final verdict in the case of election disputes. Which of the above are the functions of the Election Commission of India? A. B. C. D. 1, 2 and 3 2, 3 and 4 1 and 3 only 1,2 and 4 unacademy