Ecosystems and Biomes
We all know that our Earth consists of diverse flora and fauna The varying conditions developed due to the interaction of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere produces such diversity The life residing between these 3 horizons is termed as biosphere The interaction between organisms and their surroundings is termed ecology This term was given by Ernst Haeckel, a German in 1869 The word meant "a household or the place to live"
The study of plants and animals varying spatially is done through biogeography Such a study includes the biological and physical processes due to which such variation occurs Ocean floor till about 8 km in atmosphere is the biosphere Certain species or group of organisms residing in a specific environment interacting with it to co-exist is termed ecosystem Accordingly, it is an association of biotic beings like plants and animals with non-living matter like water, soil, rock and climate If one component of ecosystem changes then it can cause change to whole of the ecosystem The combination of all ecosystems either simple or complex forms biosphere
Thus it can be said that 'Biogeography' deals with the spatial patterns of ecosystems of diverse plant and animal community constituting all the physical and biological processes Of all, humans as species are major component of biotic beings The interaction between the organisms and environment is called ecosystem Ecosystem's Components Both biotic and abiotic components exist independently in an ecosystem but have inter-relating impact over the ecosystem Most of these ecosystems depend upon solar energy in form of heat and light While fewer ecosystems like those at ocean floor or in caves virtually depend upon chemical reactions known as chemosynthesis
The organisms surviving through adaptation in ecosystems are mainly of 3 types: producers, consumers and decomposer Ecosystems are divided into many sub-units Sunlight 1.70O,000 kcal/mlyr Primary producers 20.810 7.618 13.187 4.25O Primary consumers 3.368 1.103 2.265 720 Secondary consumers 383 272 90 rtiary consuners 16 21 5 5 Decomposers 5.060 5.060 Total heat and respiration 20.810 Gross productivity Net productivity
Community Ecosystems contains of biotic sub-division called community Living flora and fauna interacts with each other to form community When all the available communities of ecosystem interact with its physical environment, it together forms up ecosystem Eg. In forest ecosystem, one of the community may exist at the ground floor while other one may exist in the green forest canopies. E.g. tigers, deer, ox etc. at ground floor while chimpanzee, gorilla, monkey etc may exist in green canopie:s In lake ecosystem, plants and animals at surface and at bottom form two different communities
Many species together constitute to a single community Every community has its own physical appearance, abundance of species, interdependency of species and their feeding system i.e. the different trophic levels 2 important factors of community are: . Habitat A type of environment to which an organism adapts itself to survive Different plants found on various elevations proves their adaptive behaviour towards the climatic conditions existing in those locales Species get acclimatized to available physical and natural conditions to attain their set of nutrients
Niche It can be termed as the survival tool of an organism through physical, chemical and biological factors which differs from that of others Each specie has its own niche like habitat niche, trophic niche, reproductive niche Eg. Crows are found throughout India, their food (trophic) niche is seeds, flesh, grains etc all around the year In stable community no 2 species can survive adjacently with same niche in terms of habitat or trophic niche Hence similar sort of species are separated from each other to avoid competition for habitat and food
Species like lichen holds symbiotic relationship between 2 different microbes i.e. algae and fungi The algae provides the much needed energy while fungi provides shape and structure and together they constitute to form lichen Through mutual cooperation they have developed a 'niche' in which While parasitic relationships kills the host eventually and destroys the niche developed by parasite Eg. Mistletoe
I am Post Graduate in Geography and teach the same at PGT level in school. I also write content of Geography.