DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE By Rabia Zarah Khan
KabulPeshayac Kandahar Afghan- Sikh Belhi Tat Maratha AIA Bombay ona Briish NIZAM Goa ref Madras Map 12: India in the 18th Century
AURANGZEB The unity and stability the Mughal Empire was shaken up during Aurangzeb's rule. He had many harmful policies He had imprisoned his father and declared himself the PaduShah in 1658. . . Different names of Aurangzeb: Alamgir, Zinda Pir. He had banned music and dance and all artists from his court and was the last great mughal emperor
.He Executed the 9th Sikh Guru Tej Bahadur because office reluctance to accept Islam. .He Constructed the tomb of his wife Rabia-ud-Durani and called it Bibi Ka Maqbara and it was also call mini Taj Mahal. The Rajputs: . Initially the Rajputs were support pillars of Mughal empire but Aurangzeb went into conflict with them. .Initially, he raised Jaswant Singh of Marwar, Jai Singh of Amber to high ranks. But later he tried to reduce their ranks and strength. So this caused wars between them which created walls between Hindu and Muslim alliances. Marathas . He did not except full Maratha autonomy. He did not realise that the forces of Shivaji could not be easily crushed. .So he campaigned against the Marathas for 25 years due to which the resources of empire Drained and he could not subdue them so we lost a lot of respect also this led to the neglect of the North West Frontier
Others .the capital of Delhi was always challenged by peasant uprisings.example Jaat Satnami,Sikhs After his death,there was a fight for succession between his three sons .Bahadur shah emerged victorious. .He was 65 years of age he was the secular and followed compromise and conciliation and reversed many of the narrow minded policies of his father. Rajput policy: initially he tried to suppress them but Later realised his folly and restored the states of Jai Singh and Ajit Singh but did not give them the subedari of Malwa and Gujarat. So it was half Hearted conciliation. Maratha policy He did not recognise Shahu as the Maratha head and so Shahu(Satara) and Tara Bai (Kolhapur) were fighting for their places so the Marathas were not satisfied He gave them The sardeshmukhi of the Deccan but not the chaunth. This was also half-hearted conciliation did not satisfy them fully Sikhs: He tried to conciliate them by making peace with the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh and gave him a high rank. But after the death of the Guru, Banda Bahadur revolted and again there was a fight.
Bahadur Shah captured Lohgarh fort and Ambala but was not able to crush Sikhs He also conciliated Chatrasal bundela and and Churaman Jat. OThe problem was that Bahadur shah grants and charges due to which the royal treasury (13 crores) was exhausted Bahadur Shah dred and again civil war happened Jahandar Shah came to the throne with the support of Zulfiqar Khan OJahandar Shah was a useless and practically Zulfiqar Khan ruled He followed a policy of religious tolerance and abolished jaziya RajputsHe conciliated Jai Singh of Amber was given the title of Mirza Raja Sawai and was made governor of Malwa Ajit Singh of Marwar was given title of maharaja and made governor of Gujarat. Maratha policy Through his deputy in the Deccan, Daud Khan Panni,king Shahu was recognised. he gave them both Sardeshmukhi and Chaunth of the Deccan. He conciliated to the Churaman Jat and Chatrasal Bundala. Zulfikar Khan improve the finances of the Empire and forced jagirdars to have the required number of troops But he encouraged ljarah or revenue farming which involved many middlemen. Hindrances there were other nobles who are jealous of him who poisoned the mind of the ungrateful Emperor and so the Emperor to intrigued against him
Next came Farooq Siyar. he was the nephew of Jahandar Shah and defeated him with the help of the Saiyyad Brothers (Abdullah Khan and Hasan Ali Khan Baraha) Farooq Siyar was also incompetent but did not want to let the Saiyyad brothers rule properly and so there was often alot of struggle between them. So your brothers soon killed and disposed him.(1730-1720) Two princes came and went and then came Mohammad Shah. They were all puppets of the Saiyyad Brothers The Saiyyad brothers were just and tolerant. They abolished the jaziyah and pilgrim tax. Rajput: Jai Singh and Ajit Singh were given high positions in the administration. Maratha: Gave Shahu Swaraj of Shivaji and to collect Chaunth of the Deccan. In return 15,000 mounted soldiers would be given to the Mughal Empire by him. He also made an alliance which to Churaman Jat and Chatrasal Bundela. Hinderances: Constant political rivalry, rebellious zamindars that refused to pay taxes, state revenues were misappropriated and so central income declined So the soldiers were not paid properly and the army was indisciplined The saya brothers were also called namaskaram and what were called all the Islamic due to the Mogul or Rajput policy Hussain Ali Khan was later assassinated and Abdullah Khan defeated at Agra and 1720 by Nizamuddin Malik and Mohammad Ameen Khan
Still Muhammed Shah did not support the new wazir and was weak and chivalrous He tried to bring reform in the Administration. But since then Mughal emperor was ungrateful, he left his office and went to Hyderabad in Deccan and made his own empire. From now on the physical break up of the Mughal Empire had begur. Now nobles of Bengal, Hyderabad and Punjab begin making semi-independent states. The Northwest Frontier was for long ignored by Muhammad Shah and others and India had a lot of wealth. Nadir Shah was attracted to it. He moved to words India and proceeded without facing any hindrance. he was not even noticed until the occupied Lahore. Hurried preparations were made at Delhi but the nobles were still not conciliated The two armies met at Karnal in 1739 and the Mughal army was badly defeated. Nadir Shah Plundered Delhi and ordered a terrible massacre of all the citizens he took away Rs.70 crores. He also carried away the famous Kohinoor and peacock Throne with him.he had to present the Emperor Muhammad Shah and the Mughal prestige was devastated Muhammad Shah died again civil war broke out. Ahmed Shah Abdali repeatedly plundered India from Delhi to Mathura between 1748 and 1767 Muhammed Shah conferred the title of Raja upon Ram Mohan Roy. The third Battle of Panipat happened between Abdali and the Marathas in 1761.
Next came Shah Alamii in 1759 he wandered away from his castle for many years in fear of his wazir and came to Delhi under the protective handof the Marathas. he was the same person who had fought the battle of Buxar with the British.
Rabia Zarah Khan
Done my B Tech in Computer Science. Given the upsc once and am still preparing. I teach for same as well. ALL THE BEST!!!