Ashish Singh VERIFIED Edit Profile IB ACIO II-2017(Mains Qualified), UPSC aspirant Exam cleared-SSC CPO (2014), SSC CGL Tier (2016-Qualified for Mains), DSSSB (Mains) 19,313 Views in last 30 days 289,361 Lifetime Views 62 Courses 9.9k Followers 28 Following NEWS Indian Polity By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh By Ashish Singh February 2019: The Hindu Daily Editorial and Prelims Based.. (Hindi) February, 2019 The Hindu Daily Editorial and Prelims... (Hindi) Understanding Entire Polity Through MCQS 39 Lessons 38 Lessons 5 Lessons
Ecology .Ecology is a scientific study of the reciprocal relationship between organisms (including microbes, plants, animals, man) with their environment. .It deals with the ways in which organisms are moulded by their environment, how they make use of environmental resources including energy flow and mineral cycling. The term ecology was coined only as late as 1868. It has been derived from two Greek words namely, Oiko" meaning home or place to live in and 'logos . meaning study. .Literally it is the study of the home of nature. . Ecology is defined as - "a scientific study of the relationship of the living organisms with each other and with their environment.
ENVIRONMENT Everything that surrounds or affects an organism during its life time is collectively known as its environment which comprises both living (biotic) 03 and nonliving (abiotic) components. All organisms (from virus to man) are obligatorily dependent on the environment for food, energy, water, oxygen, shelter and for other needs. The environment is defined as 'the sum total of living, non-living components; influences and events, surrounding an organism
Concept of environment . The relationship and interaction between' . organism and environment are highly complex No organism can live alone without interacting with other organisms. So each organism has other organisms as a part of its environment. Each and everything with which we interact or which we need . for our sustenance forms our environment. The environment is not static .Both biotic and abiotic factors are in a flux . and keeps changing continuously.
Biotic And Abiotic Components Components of Environment Abiotic Biotic Energy Radiation Green plants Non-green plants Decomposers Parasites Temperature & heat flowDeco Water tmospheric gases and wind |symbionts Fire Gravity Topography Soil Geologic substratum Animals Man
External environment of fish For instance: Let's take the environment of a fish in the pond Its environment consists of abioti components such as light, temperature, including the water . in which nutrients, oxygen, other gases and organic matter are dissolved .The biotic environment consists of microscopIc organisms called plankton as well as Aquatic plants and animals and decomposers.
Internal environment of fish . t is enclosed by the outer body surface. Seawater about 35% Most urea retained by kidneys Gils block loss of urea . > The internal environment is relatively stable as compared to the external environment. Blood 35% or higher > However, it is not absolutely constant. Injury illness or excessive stress upsets the internal environment. Water absorbed by gills and skin Salts excreted n urine Ingests salts with foods Salts excreted by rectal gland (a) Cartilaginous fishes Red blood Salts Urea - For example, if a marine fish is transferred to a fresh water environment, it will not be able to survive.
LEVELS OF ORGANISATIONS IN ECOLOGY Individual Organism is an individual living being that has the ability to act or function independently. It may be plant, animal, bacterium, fungi, etc. Population Population is a group of organisms usually of the same species, occupying a defined area during a specific time. Community If we look around our self, we will notice that population of plants and animals seldom occur by themselves. The reason for this is quite obvious., In order to survive, individuals of any one species., depend on individuals of different species Individual Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere
Communit .For eg: Animals require plants for - food and -Trees for shelter. Plants require animals for - pollination, . Hawk seed dispersal, and soil microorganism to facilitate nutrient supply. Communities in most instances are named after the dominant plant form (species) For example: A grassland community is dominated by grasses, though it may contain herbs, shrubs, and trees, along with associated animals of different species. A community is not fixed or rigid; communities may be large or small Flycatcher Pronghorn Mule deer . Butterfly Coyote Jackrabbit Grasses
Types of Community .On the basis of size and degree of relative independence communities may be divided into .two types: .(a) Major Community These are large-sized, well organized and Urban Suburbarn relatively independent. They depend only on the sun's energy from outside and are independent of .the inputs and outputs from adjacent communities. E.g: tropical ever green forest in the North-East .(b) Minor Communities . These are dependent on neighbouring Rura communities and are often called societies. They are secondary aggregations within a major community and are not therefore completely independent units as far as energy and nutrient dynamics are concerned. eg: A mat of lichen on a cow dung pad. . .
Eco-System An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of unlightand heat community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between Termite mounds them. .An Ecosystem is a complex set of relationship Insects Fungi among the living resources, habitats, and residents .It includes-plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, . micro-organisms, water, soil, and people. Rotting log roton Bacteria Protozoans Plankton Ecosystems vary greatly in size and elements but each is a functioning unit of nature. Everything - that lives in an ecosystem- is dependent on the Algae other species and elements that are also part of that ecological community. If one part of an ecosystem is damaged or disappears, if has an impact on everything else. .
Diagram of a simple ecosystem Suns energy enters the ecosystem Photosynthesis (insects, worms bacteria etc) Heat Energy lost Primary consumer herbivore) Secondary consumer (carnivore) Heat energy leaves ecosystem 2 Producers (Plants) Energy passed on Nutrients for decomposers Key nergy Nutrients
Top Carnivore Carnivore 2gm/m 9 Primary Carnivore Herbivores 10 K Herbivores m/m2 100 Kg Producers Producers oo0 K9 Upright Pyramid of biomass in a Terrestrial Ecosystem nverted Pyramid in an Aquatic Ecosystem
1. Abiotic Components Abiotic components are the inorganic and nonliving parts of the world The abiotic part consists of soil, water, air, and light energy etc. .It also involves Non-living factors that living things need to survive A large number of chemicals like oxygen, nitrogen Examples etc. and Soi Wad Rain processes includingvolcanoes, Sunlight earthquakes, floods, forest fires, climates, and weather conditions. Water Air Temperature Inorganic Nutrients Abiotic factors are the most important determinants of where and how well an organism exists in its environment. Although these factors interact with each other, one single factor can limit the range of an organism
Energy, Rainfall, Temperature sun clouds clouds snow rain vapour vers streams oceans
IB ACIO II- 2017(Mains Qualified), UPSC aspirant Exam cleared- SSC CPO (2014), SSC CGL Tier (2016 - Qualified for Mains), DSSSB (Mains)