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Dependency of Temperature on Resistance: Wheatstone Bridge: Using thiswe canfind the value of resistance df an unknown resistor. Inthe balancecondition Resistance and Resistivity: If Ra is recistance at 0.R, is resistance atte and & are coef ficients of temperature then Resistance ispropertyof a material by virtue of which it opposes the electric current :Sis an unknovwn resictor Meter Bridge: Resistivity is numerically equalto resistance of a material which haveunit length and unit cross-sectional area Using thiswe canfind the value of resistance of an unknown resistor. Inthe balancecondition Kirchhoffs 1 Law: Junction Rule(Conservation10is an In Series: If E is the emf, is the intemal resistance, R is the extemal Combination of Resistors of Charge: At any junction of electric circuit, the algebraicsum of all electriccurrents iszero i.e.. 0 Electrical Potentiometer In Series (Currentissame but voltage divides)- Principle: V oc I i. e.. V kl resistance and m is the numberif similar batteries then E1 = 12 &r=R =R(4 ) For cells In Parallel [Voltage is same but currentdivides- .Current Electricity For a constant currenti 2 Law: Loop Rule (Conservation of Energy): Applications of Kirchhoff's Law polarity of n batteries are reversed 0- it &de |The algebraic sum of the potential differencesinany loop including those associatedemf's and those of resistive elements, must equal to zero. i. e.. E IR Batteries Combinations: There are threetypes o Area under i In Parallel: If E is the emf, r isthe intemal resistance and R is the external resistancethen Ohm's Law doesn't applies combinations of batteries- -tgraph ike n Series n Parallel At very high potential m's Ohm's L differences. If the length, area, temperature etc, areconstant, then the Current is directly proportional to the potential diference of For similar batteries- Po very hi temperatures temperatures semi-conductors, crystal -: where Reg-_-R At very low > e4 Electric current: For non-similar batteries- do V it is not pplicablefor E,where i Re En rectifiersetc The SI and CGS unit of curent is Ampere (A) and emu respectively Some other Formulas Slope of the line: IFE is the emf, r istheintemal resistance and R isthe external resistancethen i = neaud vva Electrical Power and Energy: Heat Energy HRt For m rows of similar batteries with n cells in each row- Power P = i R=- When externalresistance is maximum- In Series In Parallel, PP1+Pz+.
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