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Higher education in India Concepts Target JRF (for CBSE UGC NET Paper 1) By Navdeep Kaur
Contents: 1 Higher education system in India Basics 2 Key Developments of Modern Education System, Acts and COMMISSIONs 3 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA, UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION 4 CATEGORIZATION OF UNIVERSITIES, Universities Number 5 Management of Higher Education
Higher education provides people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical, social economical, cultural moral and spiritual issues facing humanity . It contributes to the national development through dissemination of specialized knowledge and skills. . It is therefore, a crucial factor for survival. Being at the apex of the educational pyramid, it also has a key role in producing teachers for the educational system Higher Education is a key element is demographic dividend and also that it intends to make optimum utilization of human resources specifically in age group of 15-95 years.
Formal education system can be categorized into three, namely primary, secondary and tertiary education. Tertiary education is a wider term it is higher education plus vocational education. According to the perspective of the UGC NET paper I focus is on higher education Elementary or primary education adopts child-centred approach. It continues up to 14 years.
There are three principle levels of qualification in higher education. 1. Undergraduate level leading to bachelors 2. Postgraduate level leading to master degree 3. Research level leading to Ph.D. Fellowship, or Post doctorate
Evolution of Higher Education System in India The development of the education system in India can be broadly divided into five stages 1. Ancient Period/Vedic Period 2. Buddhist Period 3. Medieval period. 4. British period 5.Post Independence period
The origin of education in India can be traced to the Vedic age. Our ancient literature, namely Vedas, Brahman as, and Upanishads revealed the highest knowledge to mankind through our ancient rishis. 1. During the Gupta period India became a centre of higher learning with Nalanda (all branches of knowledge), Takshila (study of medicine), and Ujjain (Study of astronomy) among other. 2. During the advent of Buddhism Sarnath University became a great centre of learning to study Buddhism. Ajanta was also a great place of learning to study Buddhism. Ajanta was also a great place of learning art, architecture and painting. Indian society thrived and its economy also dominated the world under this kind of education system.
3. Mughal education system consisted of primary and secondary schools and even colleges. Colleges were established at Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Delhi and other places. Education system based on Hindu Philosophy also existed side by side. 4 Higher education system under British rule: The major change in the traditional style of higher education was brought by the European rulers starting from 1600 AD .Till 1850 informal European style learning centres existed across India Their man focus was in development of European language speaking administrators and clerks for enriching the establishment of the European rule. The British were successful by 1800 in controlling much the Indian sub-continent under the rule East India Company. The British established formal system of higher education which continues till date. Lord Macaulay had been responsible in making English as the language of instruction across the education system in India. The British style University was established in Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai in the year 1857 based on the model of University of London which has been the foundation of the modern higher education system in India. Universities focused on languages, literature, history and philosophy.
These learning centers were focused on generating English speaking working class for British administrative services, army and trade. Modern Science and engineering education which flourished in Europe and America during the late 1800 weren't the main focus under the British rule. By 1903 the Indian Institute of Science was established by Tata with focus on research in science and engineering which is the first higher technical learning system in modern India. The British model of University system continued expand across India leading to growing number of higher learning centers by 1947. 5. India with second largest population is home to the third largest higher education systemm in the world by volume of students enrolled. Government of India through Ministry of Human Resource development (MHRD) under the Department of Higher Education shapes the policies related to higher education. The University Grants Commission (UGC) a statutory body established in 1956 through Parliament enacted law modeled on the UGC of United kingdom is responsible for co-ordination, evaluation and maintaining standards of higher education in India.UGC funded through MHRD is responsible for establishing central universities across India and for recognizing Deemed to be Universities run by privately funded trusts and Universities established by the 28 Federal State governments across India. UGC has established statutory Councils to promote, provide grants, set standards and establish professional education in different areas In 2006 Singapore China India Japan, and other nations announced a proposed plan to restore and revive the ancient site as Nalanda International University. .
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