Climatic Classification Average weather conditions of a region for the length of several decades (> 30 years) is termed as climate of that region considered to signify weather and climate of any region The 2 main components to ascertain climate of any region are temperature and precipitation
Historical ways of distinguishing climates of the world Oldest of climatic classifications are by Greeks: 3 latitudinal temperature zones: Torrid (lying within the tropics) Frigid (lying in the polar region) Temperate (lying between the above 2 zones) German climatologists have also contributed significantly on the basis of isotherms in climatic classification e.g. 20 degrees C & 10 degree C isotherm taken into record distinguishing the varying vegetative propagation of the 2 regions to distinguish their climate types Fri gia N. Temperatc Torrid sTeamperalc THE ZONES
Dry climate description by French geographer as the one where mean annual rainfall (in cm) remains less than twice the mean annual temperature (in degree C) is one of such incidences of past German climatologist Flohn classified climate in 7 categories on the basis of wind belts & precipitation: Consistently wet equatorial westerly regions Tropical zone with winter trade and wet summer season Dry subtropical zone with high pressure and dry climate Extra tropical zone with westerlies blowing and consistent rainy conditions Limited precipitation in sub-polar zone Boreal climate of continental sub-polar zone with summer rains and limited winter snowfall Polar high pressure zone with limited precipitation in summers and early winter snowfall
3 approaches of classification of climate: Empirical Classification of Climate This approach resides on the earlier collected database Its database consists of observable features of climate alone or in combination to establish the type of climate of a region e.g. on the basis of temperature climate can be termed as hot, warm, cold & cool While if rain and other weather elements are added the image of climate type enhances
Genetic Classification of Climate A theoretical concept of climatic classification on the basis of cause due to which a particular climate occurs e.g. climatic development due to interaction of different air masses The word 'climate' attains its origin from Greek word 'Klimata' which meant zones (torrid, temperate, frigid), a recognition to temperature-latitude relationship Although there also exist other factors which influence temperature on earth surface apart latitude But if were to be flat and plain than the relation proposed by Greeks would have been enough However distribution of mountains, continents and oceans influence the temperature and precipitation distribution on earth Explanation under this category are incomplete and quantifiably difficult.
Applied Classification of Climate Also termed to be the functional climatic classification Delineation of climatic zones is done by measuring the effect of climatic conditions in those different zones Natural vegetation and climate are co-related with each other The difference in vegetation regionally have tempted biologist to study climatic differences of the different regions Such type of classification utilizes vegetative terms to classify climatic conditions of a region. E.g. rainforest, steppes, desert and tundra etc. The climatic classification developed by C.W. Thornthwaite based on the concept of potential evapotranspiration is formulated on applied classification
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