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Chapter 1: Temperature-1 (in Hindi)
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In this lesson discuss the Temperature chapter for Railway ALP CBT2 exam.

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4. TEMPERATURE Temperature is defined as the degree of hotness or coldness ofa bodv. Hot and cold are relative terms. According to kinetic theory of gases, temperature is a measure of average translational kinetic energy ofa molecule i.e., Tk oc (KH) molecules. It is a scalar quantity. Its S.I. unit is kelvin (K) with dimensions Measurement of Temperature A branch of science which deals with the measurement of temperature of a substance is called thermometry. Thermometei is a device used to measure the temperature. Thermometer used for measuring very high temperatures are called pyrometer.

5. Relationship Between Different Scales of Temperature: C-0 F-32 K-273.16 100212-32 373.16-273.16 R-0 Ra -460 80-0 672-460 To(K) (tC +273.16) Normal temperature of human body is 310.15 k (37 C 98.6 F) STP or NTP implies 273.15 K(0 C-32 F)

6. Ideal-Gas Equation and Absolute Temperature The equation, where, n - number of moles in the sample of gas. R = universal gas constant; (its value is 8.31 J mol-1 K-1), is known as ideal-gas equation It is the combination of following three laws (i) Boyle's law : When temperature is held constant, the pressure is inversely proportional to volume. i.e., P oc-( at constant temperature) (ii) Charle's law : When the pressure is held constant, the volume ofthe gas is directly porportional to the absolute temperature. i.e., V oc T (at constant pressure) (iii) Avogadro's law : When the pressure and temperature are kept constant, the volume is directly proportional to the nunber of moles of the ideal gas in the container. i.e., V oc n (at constant pressure and temperature)

7. Absolute Temperature The lowest temperature of-273.16 C at which a gas is supposed to have zero volume and zero pressure and at which entire molecular motion stops is called absolute zero temperature. A new scale of temperature starting with -273.16 C by Lord Kelvin as zero. This is called Kelvin scale or absolute scale of temperature. T(K) toC+273.16 Thermal Expansion The increase in the dimensions of a body due to the increase in its temperature is called thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of solid is classified as follows:

8. Thermal Expansion The increase in the dimensions of a body due to the increase in its temperature is called thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of solid is classified as follows: 1. Linear Expansion On increasing the temperature of a solid, its length increases. This increase in length of a solid on heating is called linear expansion. The fractional increase in length per C rise in temperature is called coefficient of linear expansion

9. 1. Linear Expansion On increasing the temperature of a solid, its length increases. This increase in length of a solid on heating is called linear expansion The fractional increase in length per C rise in temperature is called coefficient oflinear expansion. de coefficient of linear expansion, If is coefficient of linear expansion at t1oC then, 21 - length of the rod at t C 22 - length of the rod at t2 C 11 11 [1 + (t2-ti) then,

10. 2. Superficial Expansion In increasing the temperature of a solid, its area increases. This increase in area is referred as superficial expansion. If the area of solid at temperature t C is A and on heating the rod, the area becomes A2 at t2 C then, where is called coefficient of superficial expansion at t loc Coefficient ofsuperficial expansion is defined as the fractional increase in area per "C rise in temperature. / AT dA A.dT i.e., Coefficient of areal expansion