Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
ECONOMIC SURVEY 2017-2018
Released By Government of India Ministry of Finance Department of Economic Affairs Economic Division January 29, 2018 Presented By Roman Saini
List of Chapters 1. State of the Economy: An Analytical Overview and Outlook for Policy 2. A New.Exciting Bird's-Eye View of the 3. Investment and Saving Slowdowns and Recoveries: Cross-Country Insights for India 4. Reconciling Fiscal Federalism and Accountability: Is there a Low Equilibrium Trap 5. Is there a Late Converger Stall" in Economic Development? Can India Escape it? 6. Climate, Climate Change, and Agriculture 7. Gender and Son Meta-Preference: Is Development Itself an Antidote 8. Transforming Science and Technology in India 9 Ease of Doing Business' Next Frontier: Timely Justice ian Economy Through the GST
CHAPTER 7 1. Introduction 2. Main Findings 3. India and Other Countries 4. Performance of the Indian Gender and Son Meta-Preference: Is Development Itself an Antidote States 5. Son Preference SRB 6. Son "Meta Preference" SRLC and "Unwanted Girls" 7. Conclusion
Introduction As the advanced world grapples with the fallout from the endemic harassment of women, and as the evidence grows about the intrinsic and instrumental value in raising the role and status of women in society, it is time to ask: How is India faring and how much progress has been made? The intrinsic values of gender equality are uncontestable. But now there is growing evidence that there can also be significant gains in economic growth if women acquire greater personal agency, assume political power and attain public status, andparticipate equally in the labor force Recently at Davos, IMF chief Christian Lagarde, quoting IMF research, said that women's participation in the workforce to the level of men can boost the Indian economy by 27 percent,
Main Findings These findings are based on the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from 1980 to 2016 On 14 out of 17 indicators relating to agency, attitude, and outcomes, India's score has improved over time. The progress is most notable in the agency women have in decision-making regarding, household purchases and visiting family and relatives. There has been a decline in the experience of physical and sexual violence. Education levels of women have improved dramatically but incommensurate with development. On 10 of 17 indicators, India has some distance to traverse to catch up with its cohort of countries
Another such area is in the use of female contraception: nearly 47 percent of women do not use any contraception, and of those who do, less than a third use female-controlled reversible contraception. Encouragingly, there is evidence of convergence. Analysis at household level indicates that on all but 2 measures, gender indicators improve as wealth increases. . While there is considerable variation within the Indian states and across dimensions, the broad pattern is one of the North-Eastern states doing substantially better than the hinterland states. Hinterland states are lagging, some associated with their level of development and some even beyond that; surprisingly, some southern states such as Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu fare worse than expected given their level of development.
Perhaps the area where Indian society needs to reflect on the most is what might be called "son preference" where development is not proving to be an antidote. Son preference giving rise to sex selective abortion and differential survival has led to skewed sex ratios at birth and beyond, leading to estimates of 63 million "missing" women. But there is another phenomenon of son meta-preference which involves parents adopting fertility "stopping rules" having children until the desired number of sons are born This meta-preference leads naturally to the notional category of "unwanted" girls which is estimated at over 21 million.Collective selfreflectin by Indian society on son preference and son meta-preference is necessary. .
India and Other Countries 62.3 percent of women in India were involved in decisions about their own health in 2005-06, which increased to 74.5 percent in 2015-16. Similarly, the percentage of women who did not experience physical or violence increased from 63 percent to 71 percent. emotional The median age at first childbirth increased by 1.3 years over ten years. For their level of wealth, the use of reversible contraception methods among Indian women is 51.6 percentage points lower than it should be. The number of married women in India who do not use any contraception method is high (46.5 percent). Among women using any contraception method at all, the percentage of Indian women using female-controlled reversible contraception is unusually low (32.8 percent)
Performance of the Indian States All states (with the exception of Delhi) are underscoring the earlier results that there is improvement over time. Goa indicates the best performers at all points of time. Kerala is the next best performer . The lagging performers are Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and, surprisingly, Andhra Pradesh. Delhi's performance actually worsens in a decade, and it falls from having the highest score in 2005-06 The worst Indian score is 57.6 (Bihar) and the best is 81 (Sikkim) with most of India scoring between 55 and 65 (about 40 per cent away from the frontier). . . The North-Eastern states have much better gender scores given their levels of income (they are well above their line of best fit). On the other hand, accounting for their levels of income, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar and Tamil Nadu perform less well