GS-2 18-India andits relationship with neighbouring Countries 19- Bilateral, Regional and Global groupings and agreements involving India and/ or affecting India'sinterest. 20- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India's interests-Indian diaspora. GS-3 16- India's internal security challenges: Terrorism, corruption, insurgency and organized crimeS. 17-Role, kind and mandate of securityfores, Higherdefense organizations in India India's Foreign Policy India left a deep imprint on the foreign policy of independent India. The basic principles of foreign policy enunciated by him continue to serve as the guiding principles for all the subsequent governments and Prime Minister after him. The circumstances that forced it to adjust itself can well be described below as four turning points. turning points afuta f T T 1. In 1954-55, US military pacts with Pakistan had forced Nehru to lean towards the Soviet Union.
2. In 1962 Chinese aggression and Soviet Neutrality resulted in vital security links with the US. This year marked a watershed in the development of India's foreign policy as it became more pragmatic and realistic 3. Bangladesh's liberation struggle and Nixon-Kissinger hostility in 1971 led to the treaty with Moscow. 4. In 1991, end of Soviet communism as well as power and new economic groups have changed global equations. In the post-cold war era it became imperative for India to strengthen relations with Western countries especially the sole super power the US. Basic Principles and Objectives
The main factors that help determine India's foreign policy are: the geographical situation, the economic requirements and resources, the defense needs and strategy, the existing alliances and understandings, tacit, oral or written, with other states, and of course, the recent past, contemporary world events, the ideology and the political system. The basic aims, principles and parameters of India's foreign policy were outlined by Jawahar Lal Nehru. These have not changed much even after the death of Nehru and the assassination of Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Gandhi. These are as follows: T @ HHght 3TFT TGif HTT, 3 t7 , 1. Opposition to Colonialism and Imperialism 2. Opposition to Racial Discrimination 3. Promotion of International Peace
4. Panchsheel and faith in Peaceful Coexistence These principles were first stipulated in a treaty signed by India and China on the issue of Tibet on May 29,1954 The principles were: (i) Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, (ii) non-aggression, (iii) non-interference in each other's internal affairs, (iv) eguality and mutual benefit, and (v) peaceful co-existence The Panchsheel became very popular among sovereign states of the world as a number of them-the erstwhile Soviet Union, Indonesia, Burma, Afganistan, Yugoslavia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Laos, Vietnam etc. accepted these principles of international conduct. Panchsheel was India's great contribution to international relations: Rusi
(iv) 5. Special Relations with Asian States:- Its intentions were not to create a separate Asian bloc but to promote cooperation among the countries of Asia. During Janata Government regime (1977-79), India followed beneficial bilateralism' towards neighbors and its foreign policy was marked by 'Asian Focus'. In 1990 and again in 1996-97 India adopted the good neighborhood policy which was termed as 'GUJRAL DOCTRINE'. However, it could not muster enough response from Asian countries. Rather it earned the name of 'big brother' from many neighboring nations
TZT 6. Links with Commonwealth 7. Faith in the U. . . :-India is an original member of the UNO since its inception in October 1945. It has expressed full faith in its objectives and principles. It actively supports all efforts of UNO aimed at maintaining peace throughout the world. It has been taking active part in all its organs. Whether it was Korean problem, Vietnam crisis, Cambodian problem, Lebanon crisis, West Asia crisis or peace-keeping anywhere, it always supported the U.N. efforts aimed at maintaining peace. India has contributed military and other personnel to peacekeeping forces stationed in certain countries over the years. On May 10, 1991, however, the Indian ambassador to the UN, told the Special Committee on peace-keeping operations that India supports the peace- keeping role of the world organization. But at the same time he stressed the "bedrock requirement." That such operations must be carried out with due respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country or countries concerned. The UN's future depends upon reforms. India has made a strong plea for making the UN bodies more representative and more democratic to enable this organization to deal with the growing international challenges and resolve conflicts in the international arena many of which have defied solution. It is suggested that the 15-member Security Council should be made enlarge and more democratic and transparent and thus more effective and efficient.
8. Nuclear and Conventional Disarmament:- In Six-Nation Summit held at the initiative of India in 1985 in New Delhi, solid proposals were advanced in favor of nuclear disarmament. It may, however, be noted that India is not a signatory of Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the CTBT as if considers these discriminatory and measures to perpetuate the monopoly of superpowers of nuclear weapons and energy. India objects that these treaties do not provide for a time- bound framework for global elimination of nuclear weapons. 9. Support of NIEO:- India's commitment to non-alignment and a New International Economic Order, (NIEO) based on justice, equality and mutual cooperation is unshakable. This indicates a total dedication to the twin issues of peace and development. Indian representatives were successful in getting General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) rules amended to permit the developing countries to impose import restrictions aiming at improving their export potential. India has played a significant role in the struggle for NIEO.
10. Non-alignment: This has been a basic principle and feature of Indian foreign policy. The non-alignment which India has been following since 1947 was designed to keep this country and also other countries of the Third World, away from the power blocs which then dominated the international scene. India does not think it fit to be involved in power blocs and entangled in military alliances but also because this is necessary to enable the country to promote peace and play an effective role. The development and popularizing of non-alignment was the major contribution of Jawahar Lal Nehru to international relations. 10.TCRut&T: 27T7 azer 3 R -
11. Fight against Terrorism:- The issue of terrorism and how to fight it through for a like the UN, the NAM, the Commonwealth etc. was a major item in the agenda of the discussion held between India and other major countries. At the UN itself India signed on September 18, 1999, the International convention for suppression of Terrorist Bombings. Once ratified, the convention will enable the countries to either prosecute or extradite those accused of terrorist bombings. 11. 3Tarar @ as :-HTTITTY. TUUR, TUCA5AR 12. Basic Interests: National interests cannot be static. They change according to the needs, requirements and circumstances-internal as well as external i. To maintain her own territorial integrity. ii. To maintain friendship with the neighbouring states to get an access to the oil of the Middle East. ii. To safeguard the interests of the Indians living in the border states iv. To promote her trade in foreign countries. v. To get maximum aid and assistance for economic development. vi. To enhance its defence capabilities. vii. To accomplish the security of the Indian air and sea-routes.
I did my btech from NIT Jalandhar. I gave UP PCS Interview in 2015 and 2016, along with gave UPSC mains multiple times.