Agriculture By Shivani Sharma
Different Agricultural types (1) On the basis of supply of land Intensive agriculture and Extensive agriculture
Intensive method is practiced where the supply of land is limited and density of population is high. China, Japan, India, UK, Holland, Germany and Belgium practice this method.
Extensive method is practiced in sparsely populated area - where per man land area is higher and where there is scope for bringing additional la nd under cultivation e.g. USA, Russia, Australia, Argentina and Brazil.
(2) On the basis of supply of moisture: Humid farming, Irrigation farming and Dry farming. Humid farming is practiced where there is no dearth of rainwater for the production of crops. Problems of water logging and drainage and soil erosion are present in the heavy rainfall areas
.. Irrigation farming is practiced in those areas where rainfall is seasonal and the amount is not satisfactory for crop production. In the river valleys of the world this farming is practiced.
Dry farming: areas having very little rainfall ess than 50cm and very little irrigation facilities practice dry farming Crops which can bear the high cost of production e.g. cotton and wheat is grown under this method
The types of farming practised are discussed below A. Shifting cultivation A primitive form of agriculture practiced mainly in the tropics wherein a plot of land in cultivated for a few years, until the production declines due to soil exhaustion.
Slash and burn method is practiced in which forests are cut and burnt nutrients are returned to the soil. On the interval few years the process is repeated and this a cycle is formed in the long run.
B. Plantation farming: An estate farming mostly in tropical and subtropical regions devoted to large scale production of one or more cash crops e.g. Coffee, Rubber and Tea, etc.
Jhum N.E. India Bewar Bundelkhand Deepa Bastar Jara & Erica Southern States Batra South-eastern Rajasthan Podu Andhra Pradesh Kumari Western Ghats in Kerala Kaman, Winga& Dhavi Orissa
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