Census provides the static photogenic aspect of a community, and specifically the community in India, for a particular time. Census also provides a dynamic aspect such as demographic trends. Census is conducted by Census Act 1948. ICR (Intelligent Character Recognition Software) is used in extracting data by automated software to get instant results.
Overview of Census 2011
Indian censuses have been one of the reliable sources to gather information on population and economic characteristics, literacy, education, household amenities, fertility, mortality, urbanization, caste, tribes, languages, density, migration, religion and other socio-economic measurements since 1872. Census 2011 is the 15th national census in India. Census provides basic knowledge on a country’s progress in previous years and decades such as monitoring past demographics and schemes, and the government can imply flaws which are why our census 2011 was themed as ‘our census, Our Future’.
Definition of Census 2011
Census is defined as the official or government count, which gives a perspective on a country’s population and households at a given time. The population census is a comprehensive process of compiling, collecting and analyzing social, economic and demographic data pertaining in a specific time.
Types of Censuses
In recent times the Census Bureau commonly conducts two censuses however in India the census operation is being carried out in two phases.
House listing and housing census: This stage consists of the identification of buildings, structures, residential areas which create an unambiguous structure for PE (population enumeration).
Housing census provides availability of amenities, housing stocks, settlement conditions etc.
Population Enumeration: Population Enumeration occurs after 6-9 months of the first stage, which counts individual and socio-economic information.
Different phases of Census 2011
The sacred literature ‘rig Veda reveals that during 800-600 BC population count was measured. The initial attempt was conducted by J. Princep in Allahabad and Banaras. The complete census was conducted by Walter in 1830, Dacca (currently Dhaka) and the second one was in 1836-1837 by F. St. George. W.C. Plowden was under the control of a synchronous census in 1881 and since then it has been taken uninterruptedly. In the census 2011, a fall of Empowered Action Group (EAG) states; Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, MP, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Orissa, was observed for the first time.
New inauguration of Census 2011
SECC or Social-Economic and Caste Census were conducted in 2011 to maintain the economic status and caste. SECC was conducted for the first time since 1931 to identify economically deprived people and castes who are facing discrimination.
NPR or National Population Register was created in 2011,under the citizenship act and rules which is a comprehensive database of individuals’ identification. NPR was done to provide benefits and schemes and to tighten security by providing UID numbers to individuals.
Significance of Census 2011
Constituent’s demarcation: Census provides demarcation of constituencies along with the allocation of the governing bodies’ representation. Such as, it gives the number of reserved seats that need to be addressed in governmental units, houses of people etc.
Research and knowledge gathering: The statistical census data also helps various scholars and researchers to complete their study, which can be based on Indian demographics, fertility, urbanization etc.
Industry and business planning: Data derived from household amenities, and population provides perspective on consumer demand, accessibility of goods. This helps industry and business planners to initiate a business.
Creating policies: Data helps the government to understand the overall image of the region, and based on that, the government can emulate new policies on health, education, food and transport development etc.
Discussion of Literacy, sex, caste and religion through census 2011
The population of India in 2011 was 1210.2 million, which estimated the growth to be more than 181 million than 2001 result. The population in 2011 is the combined result of Indonesia, Brazil, the USA, Japan and Bangladesh. The sex ratio is 943 females per 1000 males on average, which states that 623 million males and 586 million females. Kerala has the best sex ratio (1084) where Chhattisgarh stands at the lowest (991). Total literacy rates in India were 74.04%, whereas Kerala topped (94%) and Tripura estimates at the lowest (87%). Average population density is 382 persons/ sq.km. Mumbai is the most populated metro city and Bangalore is the least populated one. The population growth rate also increased 55.88% in Dadra & Nagar Haveli and 26% in Arunachal Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh is the most populated one whereas Sikkim was the lowest. 79.8% are Hindu and 0.37% are Jains. 18% are Scheduled caste, where maximum numbers are from UP.
The census data is important for any country. The 10-year interval range of census accumulation in India provides a perspective on socio-economic and population aspects. In addition, it helps the government to make new schemes for better development in present and future times as well.