National Security is the defence of a sovereign state’s people, economy, or institutions is often viewed as a duty of government. It is sometimes referred to as national defence or national security defence. In addition to its non-military elements, national security is now commonly recognized as including the prevention of terrorism, the reduction of crime, the protection against environmental threats, food security, and cyber-security as well as the protection against military attacks. Furthermore, in addition to the activities of other nation-states, national security risks include the actions of violent non-state actors, such as drug cartels and multinational companies, as well as the consequences of natural disasters, which are also considered national security threats.
When a sovereign state or other self-governing territory maintains peace within its borders, it is typically referred to as “internal security.” This is accomplished by preserving national law and protecting against internal security threats, among other things. Security forces ranging from the police to paramilitary organisations and, in unusual cases, the military themselves may be responsible for internal security operations.
Threats to the internal security of a nation
Minor disruptions, large-scale violence, and even armed rebellion are all potential risks to national stability. There are a number of risks to the state’s internal security, such as terrorist activity, political turbulence, and industrial unrest, that may affect the population of a state. Internal security may be threatened by petty crime, severe organised crime, political upheaval or industrial disturbance, and domestic terrorism, to name a few. It is conceivable for foreign forces to pose a threat to domestic security without legally declaring war on a nation by participating in or supporting terrorism or revolt.
In terms of government power and responsibility, internal security is often the duty of an interior ministry rather than a defence ministry. Regular police or more heavily armed security forces, depending on the state, are in charge of preserving national security. Internal security may include:
- The rules and laws are followed
- recognising the people’s right to self-government.
- Defending the independence of the state.
- preserving territorial integrity.
- Inspiring the country climb to worldwide prominence.
- Keeping India’s internal atmosphere calm and tranquil.
- Creating an environment for residents that is fair, just, and prosperous, while also protecting them from dangers to their health and well-being.
Foreign security, or protection against external aggression, is a civil and a military concern in equal measure. It has a military feel to it, although it has a civil design. The relationship between defence policy and foreign policy is cyclical. Military action is the logical conclusion to a failed diplomatic effort.
The foreign policy of a state is a mix of concepts and conventions that guide or determine interactions between that state and other countries or international organisations in the international system, such as the United Nations. The formulation of foreign policy is influenced by national interests, present and potential capabilities, as well as the reality of the internal and external environmental environments.
Threats to external security
Several national security concerns are posed by foreign governments with hostile intents toward India. Direct acts of violence and hostility are among the threats that can be made. However, they can also be more subtle and difficult to identify. Spionage and election meddling are just a couple of examples.
Other nations’ governments may finance or condone organisations that do not have the legal authority to represent them. Terrorist groups may employ physical violence or, in certain cases, cybercrime as a means of causing chaos and disruption.
In order to be considered a possible threat to national security, an enemy state does not have to engage in direct hostile action. Taking into account the idea of proliferation, especially in respect to contemporary weapons, is also an option. It is a national security problem if an opponent state has knowledge of stockpiling chemical weapons, is developing nuclear capabilities, or otherwise enhancing its capability for devastation.
National security is jeopardised by all cybercriminals, including those who aren’t linked to any hostile nations or terrorist organisations. In order to extort money from their victims, hackers attack financial institutions, government websites, and power infrastructures. There’s also the possibility that they’re doing it for ideological reasons.
Natural disasters and diseases
When it comes to national security threats, it isn’t always the case that terrible forces are to blame. Unpredictable events such as hurricanes and earthquakes may have devastating effects on the people and physical infrastructure of a nation. As a result of epidemics like COVID-19, healthcare systems and the economy are severely damaged.
According to the reality of how things work, national security is all about coping with physical threats and the military capabilities needed to do so. The ability of a nation to mobilise armed forces to ensure its borders and stop or successfully safeguard the country against physical threats as war from foreign nations or terrorism is commonly defined as national security. Several countries, like South Africa, Sweden, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, focus their military budgets on defensive capabilities, while others, like France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, focus on offensive capabilities.