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How Do You Deal with Critical Reasoning?

What is meant by the phrase “Critical Reasoning”?

The term “critical” can mean several different things:

Critical refers to a fragile state, such as a patient’s critical illness.

Being critical of someone’s actions is an example of being critical.

Critical also denotes objective analysis, as in a critical evaluation of a poem or a work of art.

The definition of “Critical Reasoning” that takes effect is the third one.

The procedures listed below are crucial for answering issues requiring critical reasoning:

1. Understand and employ language with precision, clarity, and judgement.
2. Observe and use the pertinent information from the case’s facts.
3. Recognize implicit values and assumptions
4. To analyse arguments, evaluate evidence, and interpret data
5. Identify whether or if there are logical links between assertions.
6. Draw appropriate generalisations and conclusions (inferences).

Putting an Argument Together

Two Key Elements Make up Every Argument

1. Premise(s) – the facts of the case
2. Conclusion(s) – the result reached through the facts

These two elements are necessary for any argument, no matter how brief. An argument could also be founded on an assumption or assumptions, which could result in an inference (s)

An Assumption is What?

A thinking or idea that is assumed to be true in order to reach the stated conclusion but has no supporting evidence in the premises is known as an assumption. In other words, it is a presumption that is indicated and from which the conclusion is inferred.

For instance:

Hypothesis: The murder weapon was found to have Jake’s fingerprints on it.

Conclusion: He must be the murderer as a result.

Presumption – Jake was the only one to handle the weapon before or after.

How is the Assumption Calculated?

A conclusion cannot be drawn without the assumption, which is an implied premise.

Consider the argument as a straightforward sum:

X (assumption) + 2 (one premise) + 3 (another premise) = 10 (conclusion)

Be certain of the answer’s conclusion. Consider what the question’s author is attempting to establish.

The conclusion must alter as X must also.

For instance:

Hypothesis: The murder weapon was found to have Jake’s fingerprints on it.

Conclusion: He is not, however, the murderer.

Assumption – There is some evidence indicating that someone else was involved.

When determining the Assumption, DO NOT

Theorem: Philosophers are crucial to society’s intellectual advancement.

In light of this, they have an impact on how individuals think.

Assumption 1: Philosophers are important for people’s intellectual growth.

(Wrong – Simply restating a premise does not transform it into an assumption.)

The second premise is that society needs intellectual growth.

(Wrong – An unrelated assertion that contradicts the conclusion is not an assumption.

Assumption 3: Society’s intellectual progress may not occur at all.

(Wrong – An assertion that runs counter to the premise cannot be the assumption.)

Assumption 4: Society accepts the opinions of philosophers

(True – The presumption responds to and supports the conclusion)

Conclusion

A statement that logically follows from the premise, the conclusion, or both taken together is known as an inference.

It is, in other words, a logical conclusion.

Let’s think about the first illustration we saw:

Hypothesis: The murder weapon was found to have Jake’s fingerprints on it.

Conclusion: He must be the murderer as a result.

Presumption – Jake was the only one to handle the weapon before or after.

Conclusion: Jake handled the weapon at some point.

Another example of such argument is that many children from disadvantaged families labour in dangerous occupations like making fireworks because of poverty.

Inference 1: These kids are being denied an education (wrong; they might still be in school)

Inference 2: Fireworks manufacturers frequently use child labour (Correct)

Inference 3: Poverty drives low-income families to put their health at serious risk (Correct)

A distinction between an assumption and an inference is as follows:

While inferences are fully supported by the case’s facts, assumptions lack any relevant supporting evidence.

If the premises are insufficient, assumptions must be made in order to reach the conclusions; on the other hand, inferences are not necessary but may be drawn as a result of the conclusion.

What NOT TO DO when drawing conclusions:

Hypothesis – A recent study found that childhood obesity is on the rise.

As a result, the head of a prestigious school has decided to ban the sale of carbonated beverages in the school cafeteria.

Inference 1 – Aerated drink use is a significant contributor to childhood obesity in children.

(Wrong – It is an assumption that is necessary to get the conclusion.)

Inference 2: The principal’s choice was supported by the survey’s results.

(Wrong – Simply restating a conclusion does not transform it into an inference.)

Conclusion 3: The poll only included kids from wealthy families.

(Wrong – You cannot treat an irrelevant estimate as an inference.)

Inference 4: The school cafeteria previously sold aerated beverages.

(Correct – This inference can be drawn rationally from the available data.)

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