The most initial proof of the human occupation in what is Balochistan is dated to the Paleolithic period, represented by the hunting camps, including the chipped and flaked stone tools. Moreover, the villages settled initially in the area date to the ceramic Neolithic, i.e. c. 7000 to 5500 BCE and included the Mehrgarh’s site situated in the Kachi Plain. Furthermore, these villages extended in terms of their size at the subsequent Chalcolithic, when the interaction improved. It occupied the mobility of the ready-to-use goods as well as the raw materials, with lapis lazuli, chank shell, turquoise, as well as ceramics. By the Bronze Age during 2500 BCE, Balochistan became a division of the Harappan cultural orbit, giving the key resources to the extensive settlements of the Indus river basin to the east. However, Pakistani Balochistan pointed to the westernmost scope of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
The leftovers of the initial populace in Balochistan were the Brahui community, a Dravidian-speaking community strongly related to the people of South India who were fond of speaking Dravidian. Moreover, the Brahuis were initially Hindus and Buddhists, having similarities with the Indo-Aryan and the people fond of speaking Dravidian in the leftover subcontinent. However, different from the rest of Northern India, where the Indo-Aryan language was growing to prominence, the Brahuis retained Dravidian all through the millennia.
Balochistan’s Islamic Take-Over
The Arab forces invaded Balochistan during the 7th century by converting the people from Baloch to Islam. However, the rule of the Arabs in Balochistan assisted the people of Baloch in expanding their semi-independent tribal systems, which superior forces recurrently threatened in recent times. Moreover, during the 17th century, the Ahmedzai Baloch tribe of the Kalat area dominated Baluchistan and ruled over Balochistan from 1666 to 1948.
Rai Chach started marching from Sindh and then conquered Makran in Hijra’s 14th year, i.e. 636 to 6CE. But, the Arabs visited Makran in 643. Moreover, Suhail ibn was sent by Caliph Umar from Borsa to conquer the Karman area of Iran in the initial 644 CE. Later, from Karman, he went to western Balochistan and occupied the area adjacent to the Persian frontiers. Notably, Southwestern Balochistan was captured during the campaigning held in Sistan during the same year.
BRSP – Balochistan Rural Support Programme
The Balochistan Rural Support Programme, i.e. BSRP, was an initiative that had funding from the GIZ, i.e. ‘Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit’, a German technical cooperation agency Deutsche in the initial 1980s, and then it was transformed into the BSRP – The Balochistan Rural Support Programme in the year 1991. Moreover, it is an NGO, i.e. Non-Government Organization, which was also a division of the network of rural support programs, which were functioning in the rural region of Balochistan in Pakistan.
In 1983, an assignment with the partnership of Germany was started; it was a joint venture of the Germany Government with the Government of Pakistan. Moreover, it was called the Pak-German Self-Help Project. At first, the project was brought into force by the local government department of Balochistan, including the financial help of ‘GIZ’. Furthermore, the initiative was primarily aimed at the development of the socio-economic situation of the poor people residing in the rural region of Balochistan.
Vision & Mission
The program’s vision was to make Balochistan a prosperous area in which the poor people and the women get equal and unbiased opportunities for their living and are not excluded socially and economically because of any reason. Whereas the mission was to control the potential of the poor people in the rural region, where the people lived in houses built of sun-dried bricks to help themselves, have control over the local level development, and improvise their living standard and lifestyle.
After a while, western Balochistan fell to Nasir-ud-din Sabuktagin. Moreover, his son, Mahmud of Ghazni, captured the entire Balochistan. Then, the area was later passed to the Ghurids from the Ghaznavids. After that, Iranian Balochistan, including western Balochistan, became a division of the authority of Sultan Muhammad Khan of Khwarazmian, i.e. Khiva, in 1219.
History of Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh is one of the most known sites in the initial time that shows proof of farming and herding in South Asia. Moreover, it was inspired by the Neolithic culture from the Near East.
The study of the earliest rural settlements in Balochistan study material helps enhance knowledge regarding everything that happened in Balochistan when it was invaded in the 7th century. Moreover, it tells about the BRSP, i.e. Balochistan Rural Support Programme, how it works and who was responsible and countable behind this entire scene.