The arts of the Indus Valley Civilization were found to be emerging during the second half of the third millennium. Sculptures, seals, pottery, jewellery, and terracotta figures were some of the art forms found in different civilization sites. Surely, the artists of that time had a good sense of art and bright imagination. The portrayal of human and animal figures was very much realistic in nature. The details of anatomy included were exceptional, and if we talk about terracotta art, they made the animal figures very carefully. The important sites excavated in India were Lothal and Dholavira in Gujarat, Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Ropar in Punjab, etc.
The stone, bronze, or terracotta statues found in Harappan sites were not in large quantities but were refined. Found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, the stone statues are perfect examples of three-dimensional handling volumes. The two main stone figures are- the bearded man and the male torso. The bearded man is understood as a priest who is wrapped in a shawl that is coming from under the right arm and covers the left shoulder. The trefoil patterns are used to decorate the shawl. The eyes look a little elongated and partially closed as in thoughtful concentration. The nose is medium size and well-shaped. The mouth is averagely sized with a shortcut moustache, beard and whiskers. There is an armlet on the right hand, and the holes around the neck imply a necklace.
If we compare the terracotta images and the bronze and stone statues made by Indus valley people, the terracotta representations were unrefined in the Indus Valley. In the site of Gujarat and Kalibangan, the terracotta statues were more realistic. Among the figures, the most important are the ones demonstrating the mother goddess. Some figures of bearded males with coiled hair were also found. The statue’s posture is defined as strictly straight, with legs slightly distant and the arms parallel to the side of the body. There was a terracotta mask of a horned deity that was found. Toy carts, whistles, rattles, birds and animals were also made from terracotta.
Dancing girl statue
The dancing girl statue is known as one of the best artefacts from the Indus Valley. It is a bronze statue with a height of four-inch. The statue was found in Mohenjodaro, and it portrays a girl whose long hair is tied in a bun. Her left arm is covered in bangles, her right arm has a bracelet and an amulet or bangle, and a cowry shell necklace is also visible around her neck. Her right hand is on her hip, and the left hand is clasped in a traditional Indian gesture.
The archaeologists discovered thousands of seals were discovered by the archaeologists, and most of them were made up of steatite, but some were made of agate, copper, and terracotta. There were seal engravings, especially those of animals such as unicorn bull, tiger, elephant, bison, goat, etc. The seals were made mainly for commercial purposes. The people use these seals as amulets. The size of a standard Harappan seal was 2×2 square inches, and it was made of steatite. Some ivory seals have also been discovered. These seals have a wide range of motifs, mostly of animals such as the bull with or without the hump, tiger and the elephant.
There was a seal found in Mohenjodaro named the Pashupati seal. This seal looks like a human figure seated with its legs crossed. On the right side of the figure, an elephant and a tiger could be seen, and a rhinoceros and on the left a rhinoceros and a buffalo. There are also two antelopes shown below the seat. Some square or rectangular copper tablets were also found with an animal or human figure on one side, and on the other side, there is an inscription. A burin was used to cut the figures and signs carefully.
The Indus Valley civilization has very highly skilled artists and craftsmen. The artists made a variety of artefacts, seals, pottery, terracotta figures etc. They made highly realistic figures of humans and animals. Also, the artists have a vivid imagination and a fine sense of art. The modelling of the figures was done very carefully. There were also statues found that were refined. The people of Indus Valley also made terracotta figures and seals. Seals were made up of agate, chert, copper, and terracotta. The seals were made for commercial purposes. One of the important seals was the Pashupati seal.