The Palaeolithic period also known as the Old Stone Age or Ancient Technological Stage is characterised as the very first accomplishments of humans in creativity or technology. The Palaeolithic Period is the first period of the Stone Age and is further divided into three periods, lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic and lastly Upper Palaeolithic ages. The progress from each of the periods to the following period is therefore recognized by improved technology and fineness in the stone tools. There are various Palaeolithic sites in India gracing the landscape such as Belan Valley in UP, Pahalgam Valley in Jammu and Kashmir, sites in the Thar Desert, Atirampakkam near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, etc.
Some Important Palaeolithic sites in India
These are some of the important Palaeolithic sites found in India. These sites are enough to attract a lot of tourists and archaeologists from all over the globe to visit these places.
Belan Valley in UP, India
One of the sites where proofs of Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic sites can be often discovered is the Belan Valley in Uttar Pradesh. It is located near Prayagraj were the first testimonials of rice cultivation. Belan valley located near the banks of the Belan river include sites such as Chopani, Mando, and Koldihwa. The artefacts found here belong to the lower and middle stone ages between 50,000 to 80,000 years ago. G.R. Sharma, archaeologist of Allahabad University-led researched and uncovered the order of sedimentary deposits of pebbles, gravels, silt and clays which surrounded the phase from the Middle Pleistocene to Holocene. It is one of the most important archaeological sites found in India which include old age fossils of deer and cattle and tools built of basalt, quartz and chert.
Sites in the Thar Desert, India
The Great Indian Desert in Rajasthan is surrounded by desert landscapes and jagged mountains. Rajasthan, a land of royals, breathtaking forts and palaces, provides an important amount of archaeological pieces of evidence in the late 20th century. Sites, where evidence belonging to the Palaeolithic period can be recognised, are Bagor, Karmali valley and Didwana. The discovery of Didwana in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan belonging to the Lower Palaeolithic period was a major turning point for pre-historians. It is also known as Olduvai Gorge. Further research by archaeologists reveals that there are further Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Thar desert, Rajasthan. Chert, a raw material used for making weapons and tools was also found at the Rohri Hills of the Desert, situated at the Indus River margins.
Hunasagi Village in Karnataka, India
Hunasagi Valley or Hunsagi , situated in Karnataka, Yadgir district. A vast number of Palaeolithic sites can be prominently found in this valley. The only Palaeolithic site where most tools were made up of limestone is Shorapura Taluka. Tools and weapons made up of reddish-brown chert are found there. Instruments having multipurpose usefulness and a large number of tools (about 15,000 stone tools) indicate the possibility of the existence of factories. Tools were often used for hunting and cutting in Hunasagi. This site is often said to be older than Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu and thus becomes the oldest site existing in Indian history.
Pahalgam valley in Jammu Kashmir, India
The popular tourist destination and hill station, Pahalgam Valley also known as Pahalgam meaning village of Shepherds. One of the most remarkable pieces of proof of the Old Stone Age is hiding beneath it. Single-edged tools made up of stones and arrows belonging to the Paleolithic era were discovered by the investigators in the caves of Overa Valley. These tools were often used for various tasks by early men. The Discovery of crude hand axe and massive flakes by the Archaeological Survey associated with the old pre-historic era made this place a centre of attraction. Subsequently, nine more tools were discovered, which helped in learning about the culture and developments in Kashmir.
Ketavaram Rock Painting in Andhra Pradesh, India
The Katavaram Rock Paintings in the Kurnool district of Rajasthan of Andhra Pradesh are the home of rock art belonging to the Palaeolithic age. The paintings include animals such as deer, rabbits, foxes, etc. and human-like figures, birds and is often considered as one of the most prominent art. The paintings are usually studied or examined by European investigators. By using an acidic pen or iron red oxide to draw figures on the basalt rocks. These paintings, made from the juices of different fruits and other things around 10,000 years ago show breathtaking creativity carried forward to the coming generations.
The Palaeolithic period (2.7 million to 10,000 years ago) or the first phase of the Stone Age is responsible for the initial development in creativity and technology by Homo sapiens. The period divides into three further phases and consists of various Palaeolithic sites in India. These sites became an attractive point for tourists and archaeologists from all over the world to India. Palaeontologists are those scientists who study the period which is before the