Bihar is an Indian state in eatern India bordered on the north by Nepal and on the east and west by the Indian states of West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, respectively The history of the state of Bihar dates back to the start of human civilisation, and it is also linked to the oldest Sanatana Dharma stories. It was the heart of a great country, and it had been established as a cultural centre for thousands of years under the sponsorship of mighty kings. Bihar is located in one of the world’s most fertile regions and is drained by the Ganga River. Cotton, textiles, saltpetre, and indigo were all famous. As a result, from Ancient to Medieval India, it was an important commerce centre. This provides a compelling rationale for Europeans to establish trade factories and centres.
India was controlled by several kingdoms, the most powerful of which was Mahajanapada. According to Buddhist texts, it consisted of sixteen monarchies and republics. These clans ruled a vast territory, ranging from Bengal and Maharashtra to Afghanistan.
Here are the old names of Bihar’s Mahajanapadas along with their present-day locations:
|Anga||Bihar’s Bhagalpur and Munger; Jharkhand’s Sahibgunj and Godda|
|Vatsa||Allahabad and Mirzapur|
|Chedi||Bundelkhand, with capital Shuktimati|
|Kuru||Modern-day Haryana and Delhi. Capital: Indraprastha|
|Panchala||A state in western Uttar Pradesh that extends east of the Yamuna River, with Ahichhatra as its capital.|
|Surasena||Braj-Mandal. Capital: Mathura|
|Matsya||Alwar, Bharatpur, and Jaipur|
|Avanti||Malwa. Capitals: Ujjayani and Mahismati.|
|Ashmaka||Between the Narmada and Godavari rivers. Capital: Patna|
|Magadha||Patna and Gaya. Capital: Rajgriha. The founder of Bihar and leader of the Maurya Empire, Chandragupta Maurya, was born here.|
|Vajji||Vaishali, Bihar, north of the Ganga river.|
|Malla||Deoria, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Siddharth Nagar. Capitals: Kusinara and Pawa|
|Kashi||Banaras region. Capital: Varanasi|
|Kosala||Faizabad and Gonda. Capital: Shravasti|
Bihar’s Medieval History
Bihar’s medieval history memorialised the foreign invasion and dynasty that devastated Bihar’s splendour. Because the invader framed and defamed the wonderful school of education in Bihar, which could teach the kids about the glory of their culture and people burdened with heavy taxes, it became the darkest period of all time.
The landmass presently known as Bihar has a long and illustrious history. It dates back to the start of civilization. The Sanatana(Eternal) Dharma – the oldest myths and stories of Hinduism – are linked to Bihar.
Sita, Lord Rama’s consort, was a Bihar princess and daughter of King Janak. According to mythology, Sita was born at Punaura, located on the west side of Sitamarhi, the district headquarters. Sitamarhi, the current little township, is located in north-central Bihar. Janakpur, King Janak’s capital and the site of Lord Rama and Sita’s marriage, is just across the border in Nepal.
It is accessible by the North-Eastern Railway’s Narkatiaganj-Darbhanga line via the Janakpur Road rail station in the Sitamarhi district.
It is, therefore, no coincidence that Maharishi Valmiki, the original author of the Hindu epic The Ramayana, resided in Ancient Bihar. Valmiki Nagar is a tiny hamlet and train station in the West Champaran region of Bihar, adjacent to the Narkatiyaganj railhead. Champaran is derived from Champa-area, or a fragrant Champa (magnolia) tree forest.
Bihar is an Indian state that borders Nepal. The Ganges River, which floods its lush plains, divides it. The Sanskrit and Pali term Vihara, which means “abode,” is the source of the name Bihar. Buddhist Vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in ancient and medieval times, were strewn over the territory, including the current state.