An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things and the interactions between them. They can be both artificial and natural. Each environment has two components: biotic and abiotic factors. Abiotic factors refer to non-living life forms, and biotic components mean all living life forms in biology. These factors keep up the balance of the environment. For the most part, environments are divided into smaller shapes so that they can learn more around them. Ecology is the field of examining these complex connections between living things and their environment. The zone is huge and incorporates global warming, pollution and extinction of animal and plant species.
What is an Ecosystem?
When life forms show up to connect with their physical environment, this is called an ecosystem. There are numerous biological systems such as these. The ecosystem has two main components: biotic and abiotic factors. The major difference between biotic and abiotic factors is that the biotic factors are living, while abiotic factors are non-living.
Biotic Components of an Ecosystem
The components of the ecological system are presented below:
Biotic Elements: Biotic components refer to the life forms of the environment. This includes plants, other living creatures, and organisms.
Commonly, the biotic components can be divided into three categories:
- Producer: This refers to all the green plants within the biological system. These green plants can plan their food through photosynthesis, the method by which green plants change over daylight vitality into the chemical vitality of nourishment. When it comes to vitality, plants can be called converters. They can get their nourishment ready using light, utilising straightforward inorganic substances such as water and carbon dioxide.
- Consumer: A consumer is a life form that can only expend nourishment made by the producer. They cannot make their nourishment from straightforward inorganic materials. They can be organised into the following:
- Primary Consumer: Primary consumers are called herbivores since they only eat plants. They are involved in the second level in the food pyramid and nourishment chain. Examples of primary consumers are deer, cows, rabbits, etc.
- Secondary Consumers: Secondary consumers are the carnivores. They mainly eat primary consumers and, thus, are called secondary consumers. They occupy the third level of the food pyramid. Examples include lions, foxes, and cats.
- Tertiary Consumers: Animals that eat other carnivores are known as tertiary consumers. They make up the tertiary nutritional stage of the food chain. A good example of a tertiary consumer is a wolf eating a fox.
- Fourth Consumer: An animal that a tertiary consumer can kill is called the fourth consumer, such as lions, tigers, vultures, etc. They are also known as top carnivores. They occupy the highest level in the nutritional pyramid or chain.
- Decomposer: This decomposition process is carried out by several microorganisms called decomposers. This is an ongoing process. For example, fungi and bacteria are known decomposers. These are called saprophytic fungi.
Abiotic Components of Ecosystem
Abiotic factors: This refers to the abiotic components of a biological system, including wind, water, soil, and more. The role of abiotic factors is to provide support for the successful survival of the biotic factors. Some of the abiotic factors are:
- Light: Light is a critical abiotic factor. Plants, called producers, depend entirely on light for producing food. They need it for photosynthesis and also for chemical actions like transpiration, blooming, and plant development. Light also causes pigmentation on the skin of all terrestrial creatures.
- Water: It is known that life on earth began from water. Life without water is impossible. When water is blended with the nutrients present in the soil, it helps plants utilise the minerals. Plant productivity depends on the availability of water.
- Temperature: Organisms can survive in a limited temperature range, but some organisms can survive in a wide temperature range, like polar bears who can live in such cold areas. These are called stenotic fever animals because they can withstand a narrow range of temperatures. Temperature is also known to affect the geographical distribution of animals.
- Humidity: It indicates the presence of water vapour in the air. This depends on temperature and weight. Humidity in the environment influences the rate of transpiration of plants.
- Soil: Soil is a habitat for many different microorganisms. Plants grow on the earth. They draw food from the soil through the roots. It contains minerals plants need, such as magnesium, an important component for chlorophyll.
- Topographic Factor: This refers to the elevation and shape of the land that can affect the dispersal of organisms. Temperature differences between the upper and lower levels of the mountain lead to the growth of various species of animals.
The ecosystem is a geographic area forming a life bubble with biotic and abiotic factors. Both the biotic and abiotic factors are important for the survival of a healthy ecosystem. Both components are dependent on each other. For example, primary consumers depend on the producers or the lowest level of the food pyramid, while secondary consumers depend on primary consumers. If a single trophic level of the food chain or pyramid goes extinct, it will affect all other trophic levels and cause chaos. Thus, the balance between all the biotic and abiotic factors are important.