Soil pollution refers to impurities of the soil caused by various types of soil pollutants. Soil pollutants include any substances that degrade soil quality in any manner. Pollution in the soil causes numerous harmful effects on the environment. Humans, animals, and birds are victims of soil pollution.
Soil Pollution and Soil pollutants
Soil pollution is the contamination or any form of impurity within the soil. Similarly, soil pollutants are substances that cause this soil pollution. There are numerous types of soil pollutants. All result in different types of soil pollution. Moreover, soil pollution is one of the biggest problems in present times. Soil pollution adversely affects the overall environment.
Types of Soil Pollutants
Biological agents are substances excreted by humans, animals, and birds. These natural substances litter the soil and create pollution in it.
These pollutants are developed during agricultural activities, such as the use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilisers for inexpensive crop yield. Moreover, these pollutants harm the vegetation and fertility of the land. Moreover, they are also responsible for soil erosion in some instances.
These pollutants are generally chemical residues and extremely harmful, degrading soil quality considerably. Residual radium and thorium are some examples of radioactive contaminants. When radioactive waste is placed on the earth, the soil loses its vegetation and fertility.
Residue dumped by industries degrades the soil quality. Steel, pesticides, textiles, and glass are examples of these pollutants.
Soil Pollution Causes
There are numerous causes of soil pollution. Some major reasons are:
The most severe issue that every nation faces is the management of urban trash. Its significant cause of soil pollution is urban waste. Various industries dispose of this garbage in the soil, which alters the texture of the earth and reduces its fertility. Because of urban debris, the soil’s nutrition cycle is disrupted.
Whether humans or industries, almost all have poor habits of dumping residue or waste on land. This litters the soil. It disrupts the earth’s fertility and becomes the epicentre for harmful parasites and bacteria, resulting in degraded vegetation.
Acid rain is another major cause of the degradation. Such soil degradation is indirectly linked to water contamination. Contaminated water is usually toxic. Rain is noticed after it has evaporated. Soil contamination of this type renders the soil poisonous and reduces soil fertility and vegetation.
Among prominent causes of soil contamination is sewage sludge discharged by homes. This is often thrown into neighbouring rivers and streams or pools, harming other aquatic animals and water bodies and badly affecting soil on seashores.
Soil pollution effects
Effect on Vegetation
When the soil has imbalanced PH levels, it disturbs the growth of plants. As a result, some plants may not grow ultimately, which, in turn, reflects the weak vegetation of the land.
Decreased Soil Fertility
Toxins in the soil can negatively impact its fertility, resulting in depletion of soil productivity. The polluted soil is then utilised to grow vegetables deficient in micronutrients and can include a dangerous material that can cause significant health issues in those who consume them.
The release of hazardous and filthy gases through dumps pollutes and has a negative impact on the health of certain individuals. Furthermore, the foul odour causes disturbances to others.
Poisoning of the Underground Water Table
The contamination of subsurface groundwater is potentially a result of soil pollution. Although this liquid is held metres below ground surfaces, contaminants inside the soil can readily filter through the water table over time.
Soil pollution refers to contaminated soil. There are two primary types of soil pollution: agricultural soil pollution and industrial soil pollution. Agricultural soil contamination is pollution induced by pesticides in field crops to increase production. Various activities of industries cause industrial soil contamination.