CRASH COURSE ON RESEARCH APTITUDE BY -TALVIR SINGH
ABOUT ME M.Com & MBA JRF QUALIFIED IN COMMERCE WORKING AS ASSISTANT PROFESSOR 2 TIMES UNIVERSITY COLOR HOLDER BEST DEBATER OF PUNJAB (2017) BEST POET OF PU CHANDIGARH (2016) COMEDY ADDICT FREELANCE MOTIVATIONAL SPEAKER YOUTUBER dem unaca
Measurement of variables is central to research studies.
According to Stevens, measurement scales can be of four types:. . Nominal Scale * Ordinal Scale Interval Scale * Ratio Scale
How to remember? NO IM REAL
1. Nominal scale: It is also termed as classificatory scale. A variable being measured on a nominal scale may have one, two, or more subcategories depending upon the extent of variation. For example, gender can be classified into two subcategories-male and female.
2. Ordinal or ranking scale: it usually ranks the subgroups in a certain sequence or order. For example, examination marks can be measured either quantitatively, that is, in absolute terms or in percentage terms or qualitatively using subcategories like above average, average, and below average.
* The distance between these subcategories may or may not be equal. T . he socio-economic status can be categorized as lower class, middle class, and higher class. The middle class can further be divided into lower middle, middle middle and higher middle. . The attitudinal or Likert scale also falls in the same category.
3. Interval scale: An interval scale has all the characteristics of an ordinal scale. In addition, it uses a unit of measurement with an arbitrary starting and terminating points. For example, Celsius scale is from 0 C to 100 C.
Nature Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Type of Data Description Discrete 1)ltems can only be 1)ltemscan be 1)Numerical put 2) Numerical Comparisons are lower format, but 2)But Ratios cannot impossible Discrete Continuous Continuous 1)Ratios between groups, categorized and difference between two values are in ordered in higher or values is meaningful meaningful numerical difference be calculated (60 cannot be calculated degree Celsius is not twice hot as Thirty degree Celsius of Percentage Categories of Ad dition and Addition, Meaningful Operations Percentage Categories Subtraction of values Subtraction, Multiplication and Division Analysis Interpretation chart Example & Bar Graph & Pie Bar Graph & Pie All chart tools for AlIl tools for continuous data continuous data Count of Male & Customer Temperature Weight Female in a group Satisfaction Survey Index How did you like our ice cream? Excellent/Very Good/ Just OK/ Not Good/Did not like it at all
Double JRF Commerce/Management Motivational Speaker Comedy Addict Lyricist 5 Year Teaching Experience #TREND SETTER