Kalpesh J Gadhvi is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Human reproduction Presented by Kalpesh Gadhvi
About me Kalpesh gadhvi I am pursuing MBBS from PDU medical college Rajkot My hobbies are to play cricket and listen music You can follow me on unacademy If you like my courses than please rate review recommend and share it . o . .
Male and Female Reproductive Systems . Human beings reproduce sexually and are viviparous. . In humans, the reproductive phase starts after puberty. . It involves: o Gametogenesis o Insemination o Fertilisation o Implantation o Gestation o Parturition
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM . It is located in the pelvic region. . It consists of: o A pair of testes o Accessory glands and ducts o External genitalia
Ureter Seminal vesicle Urinary bladder Vas deferens Prostate Penis Urethra Ejaculatory duct Rectum Anus Glans penis- Foreskin Testis Scroturn Bulbourethral gland
Testes . Situated within the scrotum, which protects the testes and also helps in maintaining the temperature. .Each testis is 4 to 5 cm in length, and 2 to 3 cm in width, and has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules. . Testicular lobules have seminiferous tubuleswhich are the sites of sperm formation. . Seminiferous tubules are lined by two types of cells: o Male germ cells- They undergo meiosis to form sperms. o Sertoli cells- They provide nourishment to the germ cells. . Region outside the seminiferous tubules is called the interstitial space, which contains Leydig cells(interstitial cells). The Leydig cells produce androgens.
Accessory Ducts and Glands .Accessory ducts include: o Rete testis o Vasa efferentia o Epididymis o Vas deferens . The seminiferous tubules open into the vasa efferentia through the rete testis. . The vasa efferentia open into the epididymis, which leads to the vas deferens. The vas deferens opens into the urethra along with a duct from the seminal vesicle called the ejaculatory duct.
. The ejaculatory duct stores the sperms and transports them to the outside . The urethra starts from the urinary bladder, extends through the penis and opens via the urethral meatus. . Accessory glands include: o A pair of seminal vesicles o Prostate gland o A pair of bulbourethral glands . The secretions of these glands make up the seminal plasma, and provide nutrition and a medium of motility to the sperms
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Uterine fundus Uterine cavity Isthmus Ampulla Infundibulum Fallopian tube Endometrium Myometrium Perimetrium Ovary Fimbriae Cervix Cervical canal Vagina
. It is located in the pelvic region: . It includes: o A pair of ovaries o A pair of oviducts o Uterus o Cervix o Vagina o External genitalia o Mammary glands (not part of the reproductive system, but aids in child care)
Oviducts . They are also called fallopian tubes. . They are 10 to 12 cm long, and extend from the ovary to the uterus. . The part of each oviduct lying towards the ovary is funnel shaped, and is called infundibulum.lt has finger-like projections called fimbriae. . The infundibulum leads to the ampulla, and then to the isthmus, which has a narrow lumen opening into the uterus.
Cervix and Vagina . The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina. . The cervix and the vagina constitute the birth canal External Genitalia . Consists of: o Mons pubis - Fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair o Labia majora - Extends from mons pubis and surrounds the vaginal opening o Labia minora - Fold of skin beneath the labia majora o Hymen Partially covers the vaginal opening o Clitoris - Lies at the junction of labia minora
Spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis patogonium Spermatozna Secondary spermatocyte Spermatid Pnmary spermatocyte Sertoli cell Spermatogonium Primary spermatocyte Meosis I hy Meiosis I D O Spermatids Mature sperm cells
. After the first meiotic division, two haploid and equal secondary spermatocytesare formed. . These further undergo meiosis to give rise to four haploicd spermatids. . These spermatids are converted into sperms by spermiogenesis. .The sperm head gets embedded in the Sertoli cells after spermiogenesis and is released from the seminiferous tubules by spermiation. . Spermatogenesis starts at puberty by the action of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which in turn causes the release of two gonadotropins called Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). . LH acts on Leydig cells and causes them to release androgens, which stimulate the process of spermatogenesis while the FSH acts on the Sertoli cells, which help in spermiogenesIS.
Structure of a Sperm -Acrosome Head Nucleus Neck- Centrioles Midpiece Mitochondria -Tail Sperm cell
. A mature sperm consists of: o Head o Neck o Middle piece o Tail . The whole sperm is enclosed in a plasma membrane . The head consists of a haploid nucleus and a cap-like acrosome, which contains enzymes that aid in fertilisation. . The middle piece contains several mitochondria, which produce energy for the motility of the sperm. . Sperms released by the seminiferous tubules are transported by the accessory ducts. . Secretions of epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate are essential for maturation and motility of sperms.