AGRICULTURE, NEW SCHEMES IN AGRICULTURE, VARIOUS REVOLUTIONS AND RURAL ECONOMY IN INDIA
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA * Agriculture includes farming of crops, animal husbandry, pisciculture, agroforestry etc. . Around 51% land is used for farming in India. - India ranks 2nd w . It contributes 14% in the GDP of India. Over 58% of rural households primarily depends on agriculture. - The weather conditions and soil conditions are good for farming in India
TYPES OF CROPS KHARIF CROPS: RABI CROPS: Sown in June-July and harvested in September-October Sown in Oct-Nov and harvested in April-May - - - Requires lot of water. Requires warm climate as well as cold climate Example:- Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Jute, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Pulses etc. * Example:- Wheat, Oat, Gram, Pea, Barley, Potato, Tomato, Onion, Oil seeds etc.
ZAID CROPS: . Grown between March-June. - Early maturing crops. * Example:- Cucumber, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Moong dal etc Major crops on the basis of their usage: 1. Food crops (Wheat, Maize, Rice, Pulses etc.) 2. Cash crops (Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Jute etc.) 3. Plantation crops (Coffee, Coconut, Tea, Rubber etc.) 4. Horticulture crops (Fruits and vegetables)
MAJOR CROPS IN INDIA RICE India is the 2nd largest producer of rice in the world India has the largest area under rice cultivation. Productivity is low as compared to wheat. Type of crop: Rabi, Kharif . Varieties:- Aman, Sali, Afghani, Aus, Boro, Palua . Major producers:- West Bengal, UP, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Orissa, CG, Assam, . Highest producer:- West Bengal Haryana, Tamil Nadu ' Highest producing country:-China
WHEAT It is the 2nd most important erop in India. India ranks 2nd in production of wheat worldwide. Type of crop:- Rabi Varieties:- Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Heera Major producers:- UP, Punjab, MP, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, MH, WB, Uttarakhand Highest producing state:- Uttar Pradesh . ' Highest producing country:- Ch
COTTON Cottonis a fibre crop kmown as White gold' .India ranks 3rd in the production of cotton worldwide. Types of crop:- Kharif Varieties: Long staple, Medium staple, Short staple Major producers:- Gujarat, MH, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, MP, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Rajasthan, . Punjab Highest producer- Gujarat 'Highest producing country:- China
O JUTE It requires hot and humid climate Almost 85% of the world 'sjute is cultivated in Ganges Delta. .Types of crop:- Zaid . Varieties:- White jute, Tossa jute ' Major producers:- WB, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, UP Largest producer- West Bengal Highest producing country:- India . Highest exporter:- Bangladesh
O SUGARCANE India ranks 2nd in the production. It requires 7-8 months. Firstly its production was only in Type of crop:- Kharif, Rabi . north India but now it has also shifted towards south India. ' .Major producers:- UP, MH, Karnataka, TN, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Punjab ' Largest producer:- Uttar Pradesh ' Highest producing country:-Brazil
O TEA in India during British period. .India is the 2nd largest consumer and producer of tea in the world. Tea plants require high rainfall. It requires sloppy areas Major producers:- Assam, Darjeeling, Meghalaya, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, TN, Karnataka Highest producer:- Assam 'Highest producing country:- China
O SPICES ' Cardamom(Queen of Aromatic Spices):- Assam, Kerala, TN ' Pepper(King of spices):- Kerala Chillies:- Andhra Pradesh, MH, Orissa, RJ .Turmeric:- Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, TN Cinnamon: Kerala Clove:- Kerala Ginger:- Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim
5. SOIL HEALTH CARD: trients to balance the ar in the soil - Values on soil parameters are pH, N, P, K, S, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B - Recommendation of appropriate dosage of fertilizer based on test. 6. MERA GAON, MERA GAURAV: -A group of experts will be a including farm investment, loans, availability of inputs and marketing. All the scientists from ICAR and agriculture universities will participate in this initiative *
VARIOUS REVOLUTIONS IN INDIA Revolutions made a great impact on particular field, it is helpful n growth of that field as well as creates multiple opportunities in that field. Following are the various revolutions REVOLUTIONS BLUE BROWN GREEN GOLDEN FIBRE GOLDEN RELATED FIELD FISH PRODUCTION LEATHER, COCOA AGRICULTURE JUTE PRODUCTION OVERALL HORTICULTURE, HONEY FRUIT PRODUCTION FERTILIZERS ONIONS, PRAWN GREY PINK
RELATED FIELD REVOLUTIONS BLACK RED EVERGREEN PETROLEUM PRODUCTION MEAT, TOMATO OVERALL AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION POTATO ROUND SILVER FIBRE SILVER WHITE YELLOW COTTON EGG DAIRY, MILK OIL SEED
GREEN REVOLUTION: The term "green revolution" was coined by "William S. Gaud" in march 1968 by the administrator of o USAID after noted the spread of technologies. o Ford foundation and Rockfellar foundation were involved in it o '"Norman Borlaug" known as "Father of green revolution" o He was a researcher in British Rockfellar foundation, Mexico o He received Nobel peace prize in 1970 for saving over a billion people from starvation. o The basic approach involved development of high yield variety of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. o The HYV seeds increase production up to 200%. o The green revolution started in 1950 to 1970 in Mexico.