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Phylum - Protozoa Locomotory Organelles: Part-1 Pseudopodium and Myonemes (in Hindi)
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This lesson tells you about the locomotory organs of Protozoans

Aakriti
Graduate in Biology Pursuing M.Sc. in Zoology Power is gained by sharing knowledge not hoarding it.

U
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  1. PHYLUM: PROTOZOA Locomotory Organs By: AAKRITI


  2. Locomotory Organs in Protozoa Locomotion is the movement of the animals from place to place It is performed in search of food, mate, and shelter or to escape from predators etc and influenced by external and internal stimuli. Protozoans are very primitive, single celled animals which show great adaptability in their locomotion


  3. * They exhibit slowest locomotion like amoeboid locomotion and also the fastest locomotion like ciliary locomotion In protozoans, locomotion is brought about by Cellular extensions like Pseudopodia (Eg: Amoeba) Pellicular contractile structures like Myonemes (Eg: Euglena and Sporozoans) Locomotory organelles like Cilia (Eg: Paramecium) and Flagella (Eg: Euglena)


  4. PSEUDOPODIA (CELLULAR EXTENSION): They are also known as false feet. * These are the temporary outgrowths of the cell. They are formed on the surface of the body by the movement ofthe cytoplasm . Depending on number of pseudopodia formed on the surface: Polypodia- Several pseudopodia formed on the surface of the body. Eg:Amoeba proteus Monopodia- Only single pseudopodia is formed on the surface of the body. Eg:Entamoeba histolytica


  5. Lobopodia Filopodia Axopodia Reticulopodia


  6. . Depending on the structure of the pseudopodia: Lobopodia: These are lobe like and blunt structures with broad and rounded ends. These structures composed of endoplasm and ectoplasm Lobopodia move by pressure flow mechanism Eg:Amoeba proteus, Entamoeba histolytica Filopodia:These are slender filamentous pseudopodia tapering from base to tip. Sometimes these may be branched out but they are not fused to form a network. They are composed of only ectoplasm Eg:Euglypha, Lecithium


  7. Reticulopodia: They are also known as rhizopodia or myxopodia. They are filamentous, profusely interconnected and branched . They form a network. The primary function of these pseudopodia itn ingestion of food and the secondary function is locomotion. . They exhibit two way flow of the cytoplasm. . They are commonly found in foraminifers. Eg:Elphidium, Globigerina


  8. Axopodia: These are fine needle like, straight pseudopodia radiating from the surface of the body. Each Axopodia contain a central axial rod which is covered by granular and adhesive cytoplasm . The main function of these axopodia is food collection Axopodia also exhibit two-way flow of cytoplasm. Axopodia are mainly found in Heliozoans and radiolarians . Eg:Actinosphaerium, Actinophrys, Collozoum


  9. MYONEMES (PELLICULAR CONTRACTILE EXTENSIONS) Many protozoans have contractile structures in the pellicle or ectoplasm called as myonemes. These may be in the form of, Ridges or grooves (Eg: Euglena) Contractile myofibrils (Eg: Larger ciliates) e Microtubules (Eg:Trypanosoma)


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