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Constitution of India: Part 3 (in Hindi)
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Part 3

Abhishek Pandey is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Abhishek Pandey
Prime Minister’s Scholarship awardee, has qualified UPSC CDS/AFCAT 6 times each, has cleared UPSC CAPF.

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article 123-power of president to promulgate ordinances
Article 123 gives power to the president to issue ordinance.
emergency provisions : article 352 , 356 , 360
  1. CONSTITUTION OF INDIA: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND By Abhishek Pandey


  2. Landmarks in the Development of Constitution Indian Councils Act, 1861 (i) Governor General was empowered to issue ordinances in case of emergency. (ii) Participation of some non-official members in Viceroy's Executive Council permitted


  3. Landmarks in the Development of Constitution Indian Councils Act, 1892 (i) The Universities, District Boards, Municipalities, Zamindars and Chamber of Commerce were empowered to recommend members to the Provincial Legislative Council which were to be nominated by Governors (ii) The members of the Legislatures were now entitled to take part in debate over Annual Statement of Revenue and Expenditure i.e. Budget They could also put questions within certain limitations


  4. Landmarks in the Development of Constitution Indian Councils Act, 1909 (Morley Minto Reforms) (i) Morley was the Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India (ii) It was the first ever attempt to bring in a representative and popular element in the governance of thee country (ii) The principle of election was introduced, but only in some cases (iv) The provision was made for the association of Indians with the Executive Council of the Vicerov and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy's Executive Council. He was appointed as law member.


  5. Landmarks in the Development of Constitution Indian Councils Act, 1909 (Morley Minto Reforms) (i) Muslims were given separate representation and hence Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.


  6. Landmarks in the Development of Constitution Government of India Act, 1919 (Montague- Chelmsford Reforms) (i) Montague was the then Secretary of State for India (ii) The idea of Responsible Government was (ii) All administrative subjects were divided into two (iv) Provincial subjects were further divided into two & Chelmsford was the then Viceroy of India emphasised upon groups viz. central and provincial parts- Transferred and Reserved